Vol. 5 (2020): American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews

Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools

Ronnie V. Rivera
Kaila Elementary School, Sitio Kaila, Barangay San Roque, Antipolo City, Rizal 1870


  • Opportunity to learn, Teacher education, teacher experience, Teacher quality

How to Cite

Ronnie V. Rivera. (2020). Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools. American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 5(1), 67. Retrieved from https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/293


Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This paper reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. There are measures which may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge, and teacher provision of opportunity to learn.


  1. Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., & Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25(1), 95–135.
  2. Akiba, M., LeTendre, G., & Scribner, J. (2007). Teacher quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries. Educational Researcher, 36(7), 369–387.
  3. Baumert, J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., Jordan, A., et al. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133–180.
  4. Blank, R. K., & De Las Alas, N. (2009). The effects of teacher professional development on gains in student achievement: How meta analysis provides scientific evidence useful to education leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/ fulltext/ED544700.pdf.
  5. Blazar, D. (2015). Effective teaching in elementary mathematics: Identifying classroom practices that support student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 48, 16–29.
  6. Blomeke, S., Olsen, R., & Suhl, U. (2016). Relation of student achievement to the quality of their teachers and instructional quality. In T. Nilson & J. Gustafsson (Eds.), Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes. IEA Research for Education (Vol. 2, pp. 21–50). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3319-41252-8_2.
  7. Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., & Loeb, S. (2006). How changes in entry requirements alter the teacher workforce and affect student achievement. Education Finance and Policy, 1(2) , 176–216.
  8. Boyd, D. J., Grossman, P. L., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2009). Teacher preparation and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(4), 416–440.
  9. Cattaneo, M., Oggenfuss, C., & Wolter, S. (2016). The more, the better? The impact of instructional time on student performance. Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 9797. Bonn, Germany: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit/Institute for the Study of Labor. Retrieved from ftp.iza.org/dp9797.pdf.
  10. Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2014). Measuring the impacts of teachers II: Teacher value-addedandstudentoutcomesinadulthood.AmericanEconomicReview,104(9),2633–2679.
  11. Chingos, M., & Peterson, P. (2011). It’s easier to pick a good teacher than to train one: Familiar and new results on the correlates of teacher effectiveness. Economics of Education Review, 30(3) , 449–465.
  12. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2006). Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher effectiveness. Journal of Human Resources, 41(4), 778–820.
  13. Collinson, V. (1999). Redefining teacher excellence. Theory Into Practice, 38(1), 4–11. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/00405849909543824.
  14. Common Core Standards Initiative. (2018). Preparing America’s students for success [ www document]. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/.
  15. Constantine, J., Player, D., Silva, T., Hallgren, K., Grider, M., & Deke, J. (2009). An evaluation of teachers trained through different routes to certification. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance paper 2009-4043. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20094043/.
  16. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 1. Retrieved from https://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/viewFile/392/515.
  17. Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Vasquez Heilig, J. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13, 42. Retrieved from https://epaa.asu.edu/ ojs/article/view/147.
  18. Desimone, L., Porter, A., Garet, M., Yoon, K., & Birman, B. (2002). Effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal study. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 81–112.
  19. Desimone, L., Smith, T., & Phillips, K. (2013). Teacher and administrator responses to standards-based reform. Teachers College Record, 115(8), 1–53.
  20. Garet,M.S.,Heppen,J.B.,Walters,K.,Parkinson,J.,Smith,T.M.,Song,M.,etal.(2016).Focusing on mathematical knowledge: The impact of content-intensive teacher professional development. NationalCenterforEducationEvaluationandRegionalAssistancepaper2016-4010.Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20094010/.
  21. Gerritsen, S., Plug, E., & Webbink, D. (2014). Teacher quality and student achievement: Evidence from a Dutch sample of twins. CPB discussion paper 294. The Hague, The Netherlands: Central Plan Bureau/Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis. Retrieved from https://ideas. repec.org/p/cpb/discus/294.html.
  22. Goe, L. (2007). The link between teacher quality and student outcomes: A research synthesis. NCCTQReport.Washington,DC:NationalComprehensiveCenterforTeacherQuality.Retrieved from http://www.gtlcenter.org/sites/default/files/docs/LinkBetweenTQandStudentOutcomes. pdf.
  23. Gustafsson,J.,&Nilson,T.(2016).Theimpactofschoolclimateandteacherqualityonmathematics achievement: A difference-in-differences approach. In T. Nilson & J. Gustafsson (Eds.), Teacher quality, instructional quality and student outcomes, IEA Research for Education (Vol. 2 , pp. 81–95). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10. 1007/978-3-319-41252-8_4.
  24. Hanushek, E., & Luque, J. (2003). Efficiency and equity in schools around the world. Economics of Education Review, 22(5), 481–502.
  25. Hanushek, E., Piopiunik, M., & Wiederhold, S. (2018). The value of smarter teachers: International evidence on teacher cognitive skills and student performance. Journal of Human Resources ( in press). https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.55.1.0317.8619r1.
  26. Harris, D. N., & Sass, T. R. (2011). Teacher training, teacher quality and student achievement. Journal of Public Economics, 95(7–8), 798–812.
  27. Hill, H., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371–406.
  28. Jerrim, J., Lopez-Agudo, L., Marcenaro-Gutierrez, O., & Shure, N. (2017). What happens when econometrics and psychometrics collide? An example using the PISA data. Economics of Education Review, 61, 51–58.
  29. Ladd, H. F., & Sorenson, L. C. (2017). Returns to teacher experience: Student achievement and motivation in middle school. Education Finance and Policy, 12(2), 241–279. Retrieved from https://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/10.1162/EDFP_a_00194.
  30. Lavy, V. (2015). Do differences in schools’ instruction timeexplain internationalachievement gaps? Evidence from developed and developing countries. The Economic Journal, 125(11), 397–424.
  31. Luschei, T., & Chudgar, A. (2011). Teachers, student achievement, and national income: A cross-national examination of relationships and interactions. Prospects, 41, 507–533.
  32. Metzler, J., & Woessman, L. (2012). The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation. Journal of Development Economics, 99(2), 486–496.
  33. Montt, G. (2011). Cross-national differences in educational achievement inequality. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 49–68.
  34. Palardy, G. J., & Rumberger, R. W. (2008). Teacher effectiveness in first grade: The importance of background qualifications, attitudes, and instructional practices for student learning. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2), 111–140.
  35. Papay, J., & Kraft, M. (2015). Productivity returns to experience in the teacher labor market: Methodologicalchallengesandnewevidenceonlong-termcareerimprovement.JournalofPublic Economics, 130, 105–119.
  36. Phillips, K. J. (2010). What does ‘highly qualified’ mean for student achievement? Evaluating the relationships between teacher quality indicators and at-risk students’ mathematics and reading achievement gains in first grade. The Elementary School Journal, 110(4), 464–493.
  37. Pil, F. K., & Leana, C. (2009). Applying organizational research to public school reform: The effects of teacher human and social capital on student performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1101–1124.
  38. Polikoff, M., & Porter, A. (2014). Instructional alignment as a measure of teaching quality. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(4), 399–416.
  39. Rice, J. K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute.
  40. Rivkin, S., Hanushek, E., & Kain, J. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.
  41. Rivkin, S., & Schiman, J. (2015). Instruction time, classroom quality, and academic achievement. The Economic Journal, 125(11), 425–448.
  42. Rockoff, J. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. The American Economic Review, 94(2), 247–252.
  43. Rockoff, J. E., Jacob, B. A., Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2011). Can you recognize an effective teacher when you recruit one? Education Finance and Policy, 6(1), 43–74.
  44. Schmidt, W., Burroughs, N., Cogan, L., & Houang, R. (2017). The role of subject-matter content in teacherpreparation:Aninternationalperspectiveformathematics.JournalofCurriculumStudies, 49(2), 111–131.
  45. Schmidt, W., Burroughs, N., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Education Researcher, 44(4), 371–386.
  46. Schmidt, W., McKnight, C., Houang, R., Wang, H., Wiley, D., Cogan, L., et al. (2001). Why schools matter: A cross-national comparison of curriculum and learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  47. Shuls, J., & Trivitt, J. (2015). Teacher effectiveness: An analysis of licensure screens. Educational Policy, 29(4), 645–675.
  48. Staiger, D., & Rockoff, J. (2010). Searching for effective teachers with imperfect information. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 97–118.
  49. Wallace, M. R. (2009). Making sense of the links: Professional development, teacher practices, and student achievement. Teachers College Record, 111(2), 573–596.
  50. Wayne, A. J., & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), 89–122.
  51. Wilson, S. M., & Floden, R. E. (2003). Creating effective teachers: Concise answers for hard questions. An addendum to the report “Teacher preparation research: Current knowledge, gaps, and recommendations. Washington, DC: AACTE Publications.
  52. Wiswall, M. (2013). The dynamics of teacher quality. Journal of Public Economics, 100, 61–78.
  53. Woessman, L. (2003). Schooling resources, educational institutions, and student performance: The international evidence. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 65(2), 117–170.