American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR <p>ISSN:2474-9265<br />DOI:10.28933/AJERR</p> en-US American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews REGULATION OF LEARNING AND RESULTS OF BACCALAUREAT IN SCIENCE: CASE STUDY OF REGION OF MAYO- KEBBI EAST (CHAD) https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/374 <p>The educational action of the teacher plays a central role in the school success of students. In fact educational organisation of teaching sequencies influences greatly on the rates success of students (learners) particularly in certified Exams. It is the case of baccalaureat [A level certification) exam (Baccalaureat: Secondary school examination qualifying for entry to university, High school diploma), Bac. A (Arts based) Bac. C, D (science based)] in science in the secondary school of Mayo –Kebbi East where the rate of global success is too low (8,40% in 2014).<br>This study has the interest in the impact of implementation of educational pratices of teachers in the situation of the classes for the success in Baccalaureat of the students in science senior secondary school (Terminal, Serie C, D).<br>It is structures in three parts as follow : the introduction that states the main question, the methodology that describes the adopted approaches to realize the study, the results from collected data in the field the discussion that confrontes the collected data in the beginning and lastly the conclusion that makes the assessment evaluation of this study.</p> NDIGMBAYEL Reoular Urbain, Ph. D Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-02-04 2016-02-04 5 6 6 10.28933/ndigmbayel-ajerr-072016 AN EVALUATION ON THE STAGE EXPERIENCES OF WOMEN MUSIC TEACHERS https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/373 <p>In this study, based on women music teachers thoughts about stage performance field, to detect the problem types they have about stage performances, what kind of activities they do with their instruments or why they don’t do those activities a survey was applied which is one of the qualitative research method. For this purpose, the survey was applied to 54 woman music teachers who serve in our country. In result of survey, frequency and percentage analysis’s of obtained data is made with SPSS v.17 program. Data obtained from the survey results were analyzed by SPSS v.17 in terms of frequency and percentage. Data were scrutinized and views related to the subject were presented. In theoretical part of the study, theoretical base of the research was enriched with literature review. As a result of the study it was detected that woman music teachers have concern about stage performance and social and cultural structure where they live affects their stage experiences. It is concluded that Because of some feminine responsibilities, they need more time to improve themselves professionally. It is determined that men are more dominant then women in stage experience. In this study, we see that lessons for instrument training are not sufficient enough to prepare the students Professional or private stage experiences.</p> Ali AYHAN1, Tuba GÜRBÜZ2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-09-18 2016-09-18 5 5 5 10.28933/ayhan-ajerr-09-2016 Intertextuality and pastiche Technoques of Mark Twain Select Novels https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/372 <p>William Dean Howells remembered Twain as “entirely satisfied with the result of the Civil War and . . . eager to have its facts and meanings brought out at once in history.[19] By 1881, Twain had observed the consequences of the Civil War and felt that the freedmen needed help in their new roles in society. Hence twain uses in his two novels Intersexuality and Pastiche techniques. Which means an important element of postmodernism is its acknowledgment of previous literary works. The intersexuality of certain works of postmodern fiction, the dependence on literature that has been created earlier, attempts to comment on the situation in which both literature and society found themselves in the second half of the 20th century: living, working, and creating on the backs of those that had come before.</p> G.SANKAR1, DR.R.SOUNDARARAJAN2, S.P SURESH KUMAR3 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-07-18 2016-07-18 5 4 4 10.28933/sankar-ajerr-0902-2016 Violence among Nigerian Adolescents: A Threat to National Security https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/371 <p>Violence among adolescents or youths is a universal problem, and it is so serious that it can have negative effects on victims and their families, friends and communities.. It is a phenomenon which in practice has led to a near breakdown of law and order, low productivity due to disruption of production activities, increasing crime rate, intra-ethnic hostilities, and harassment of prospective developers and other criminal tendencies. These alarming incidences of youth violence provoke this paper to identify types of youth violence, causes, effects, counselling strategies and recommendations. In conclusion, effective counselling to youths could go a long way in curbing violence. The role of counselling in the management of behaviour cannot be neglected; this is because a counsellor is the only professionally trained person who possesses the personal and professional skills required in managing such behavioural problem.</p> FAREO Dorcas Oluremi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-04-18 2016-04-18 5 3 3 10.28933/fareo-ajerr-09-2016 The Social Realities with Survival Strategies of the Protagonists in Nayantara Shgal’s Storm in Chandigarh https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/370 <p>In Storm in Chandigarh, the scene of action shifts from Delhi to Chandigarh, but the same storm of This Time of Morning continues to rage in Storm in Chandigarh. The further linguistic bifurcation of Punjab into Haryana and Punjab nearly twenty years after the first partition based on religion is the situation; political tension between the two newly carved states regarding the boundaries, water and electric power is the theme and as the capital of the two states, Chandigarh is the stage for the action. The relationship between politics and literature has been an interesting field of study. Irving Howe, whose Politics and the Novel is considered the locus classics on the subject, caste, “more than enough skepticism on the impulse to assign literary levels” and calls his book Politics and the Novel, but not Political Novel.</p> G.SANKAR1, DR.R.SOUNDARARAJAN2 and S.P SURESH KUMAR3 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-07-18 2016-07-18 5 2 2 10.28933/sankar-ajerr-09-2016 Teacher’s Views Regarding the Development of Students’ Cognitive Modelling Competencies and Modelling Implementation Process https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/369 <p>The purpose of the study is to reveal a mathematics teacher’s views regarding the development of 6th grade students’ cognitive modelling competencies and modelling implementation process. She conducted a long-term modelling sequences aiming at the competency development and was interviewed after the implementation process. Her answers were analyzed by using content analysis and the views were gathered under some themes and codes. It was seen that the views were shaped under seven themes as providing the development of each modelling competency, development of cognitive modelling competencies, factors contributing the development of cognitive modelling competencies, factors preventing the development of cognitive modelling competencies, implementation process, future implementations and factors required to be fixed in the implementation process. Some strategies supporting the development of the cognitive modelling competencies were appeared from her statements. She also indicated her general thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the implementation process. It is suggested for further studies to utilize the factors and strategies revealed in the study for planning modelling implementations.</p> Ayşe TEKİN DEDE, Süha YILMAZ Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2016-09-04 2016-09-04 5 1 1 10.28933/dede-ajerr-09-2016 Composition Style Of Modern Turkish Composer Cemal Re?it Rey https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/368 <p>Having been one of the first generation composers in the history of Turkish Republic, Cemal Re?it Rey (1904- 1985) is an important artist who served much as a pianist, conductor and educator. He helped the advance of Turkish composition through his works. Therefore, Cemal Re?it Rey and his works are worth to be examined.<br>With this study, it was aimed to bring a new perspective on the works and composition style of Cemal Re?it Rey. When the compositions of Rey were examined, four different periods were observed in terms of style and composition technic: 1st period (1912-1926) was “tonal formation and development in creation”; 2nd period (1926–1930) was “ethno-folkloric formation and development in creation”; 3rd period (1931–1946) was “modal-mystic formation and development in creation”; and 4th period (1946–1983) was “back to tonality and mixed practices in creation”. He composed a total of 85 known pieces which demonstrated different style, pattern, form and musical characteristics. Most of his works were symphony, symphonic poem, suite, rhapsody and concerto.</p> Özlem ONUK Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 1 1 10.28933/ajerr-2017-07-0701 Strategies for Enhancing Peace Education for National Security in Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/367 <p>This work is a product of library research. The purpose was to discuss national security in Nigeria in relation to peace education. The concepts of peace education and national security were presented. The reasons for national security were discussed. The researchers also articulated the efforts so far made in Nigeria to promote national security. The work also articulated the importance of peace education to national security. The major challenges to national security in Nigeria were highlighted and strategies for enhancing peace education for national security were documented. Part of the suggestions was that elders at family and society levels should show good examples and inculcate in the children, the culture of tolerance and coexistence in the plural society, as well as teaching them patriotism and civic responsibilities to the nation over and above allegiance to tribe or ethnicity as a way of achieving national security in Nigeria.</p> Isaac N. Nwankwo, Gladys Uzoechina Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 2 2 10.28933/AJERR-2017-06-1801 Teenage Violence in Secondary Schools in Anambra State: Causes, Effects and Possible Solutions https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/366 <p>The study of the causes, effects and possible solutions to teenage violence in secondary schools was carried out in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. The schools used for the study were randomly selected. The population of the study comprised 2932 students. The sample for this study consisted of 1743 subjects representing 60 percent of each stratum. The instrument used was a questionnaire. The instrument was duly validated by experts and the reliability index was 0.94 which was considered adequate for the study. The instrument was administered by the researcher with the help of research assistants. The direct approach method was used. Mean scores were used in data analysis. The results obtained indicated that the causes of teenage violence included anti social family background, negative media information, making the teenager behave anti-socially affecting their lives, that of their families and the society at large. However an administrator should be concerned with the mental and social growth of students and also establish guidelines and procedures to protect the students and provide for their emotional growth. It was also recommended that the teachers should endeavour to become approachable and assessable and be role models by-being non-judgmental and supportive in their dealing with students.</p> Egenti, Uju. P. (Ph.d) Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 3 3 10.28933/AJERR-2017-06-1802 CUBISM, STRAVINSKY AND RITE OF SPRING https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/365 <p>Each art period or movement has been an effective form of expression for its time and mostly emerged as reaction to the previous art movement. This study discusses the emergence cubism as a form of artistic expression and its style through the works and examines the composer Igor Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring in the context of cubism. For cubism, the deformation of the usual, objective order of the universe appears as an inevitable mandatory principle. With this movement, it is possible to reshape the form in different ways through formlessness, to distort all and reincorporate all known forms and achieve new forms. In the heart of cubism, there lies the principle of expressing the idea of imagining and describing the things that happen in separate places together as if they are happening at the same time, by combining it with the pleasure of confusion. Cubism is a window opening to modern art and the most important step taken on this path. The influences of cubism have manifested themselves in the different musical structure of Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring. His music (the main theme) has been built on a rhythmic structure that can be defined as complex. The spontaneous and intuitive and impulsive reflection of artist’s impressions regarding the object, is evident in the intuitive rhythm, chord and unique texture of Stravinsky’s work. It is expressed that there is no intellectual system used in the formation of the harmonic language of the “Rite of Spring”, that it is only based on inner perception.</p> Özlem ONUK Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 4 4 10.28933/AJERR-2017-10-0401 Comparison of Doping Knowledge Levels of Two Different University Learning Students https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/364 <p>The aim of this study was to determine the doping knowledge levels of the students of A?r? ?brahim Chechen University School of Physical Education and Sports and Atatürk University Faculty of Education Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department. A?r? ?brahim Çeçen University 200 students studying at the School of Physical Education and Sports 334 students studying at the Department of Physical Education and Sports Teaching at Ataturk University Faculty of Education have been applied and a total of 534 questionnaires have been evaluated. The scope validity, comprehensibility and reliability of the questionnaire consisting of 32 questionnaires in order to determine the level of doping information was made by enthusiasm and cronbach alpha reliability coefficient in the 2006-2007 school year was determined as 0.92. (0.80 &lt;x &lt;1.00), the data collection tool is highly reliable. Information obtained from the questionnaire The frequency and percentage values were taken in the SPSS 16.0 package program. The frequency and percentage distribution of the demographic characteristics of the students participating in the survey and the results of the chi-square test to determine the relationship between the independent variables and the opinions related to the use of doping.</p> 2A,Vahit DOĞAR, 1Metin BAYRAM, 2Kenan ŞEBİN, 1Gökhan BAYRAKTAR, 1Serkan T.AKA Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 7 7 10.28933/ajerr-2017-11-0305 Critical Thinking Skill and Academic Achievement Development in Nursing Students: Four-year Longitudinal Study https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/363 <p>Many studies have demonstrated that critical thinking skill increases the academic achievement (Tümkaya, 2011) and improves problem-solving skills (Bowles, 2000; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay, 2011) and that students with high critical thinking scores are more successful in professional practices (Bowles, 2000). In addition to these, critical thinking skills take an important place in terms of nursing education as they enable providing reliable, effective and quality nursing care (Daly, 1998; Oerman, 1998; Paul and Heaslip, 1995).<br>It is observed that university education, which constitutes the step before individuals go into the professional life, does not develop critical thinking skills adequately although it has an important function in the personal and professional lives of individuals (Kanbay et al., 2012, Kanbay and Okanl?, 2017). Many studies have shown that critical thinking skills of university students are at a low level (Kantek et al., 2010; Akku? et al., 2010; Arslan et al., 2009; Bulut et al., 2009) or generally at a medium level (Be?er and K?ssal, 2009; Küçükgüçlü and Kanbay 2011; Korkmaz, 2009; ?en, 2009; Çetin, 2008; Kanbay et al., 2013).<br>Critical thinking skills enable individuals to question and accept the information and to make effective decisions by developing alternative points of view. In this respect, individuals should gain critical thinking skills to be able to critically approach the information at all stages of education from pre-school education to higher education (Akça and Ta?ç?, 2009). This can only be achieved through an educational system aimed at critical thinking (Kökdemir, 2003). For this reason, critical thinking should be explained and developed in the objectives of higher education programs (Ennis, 1997).<br>Based on this whole literature, critical thinking was thought to have significant effects on nursing education, and the answers to the following questions were sought by planning this study with the aim of determining the development of nursing students’ critical thinking skills and academic achievements during undergraduate education and examining the change of critical thinking skills according to descriptive characteristics.<br>• Do the mean scores of the critical thinking skills of students differ according to the follow-ups?<br>• Do the mean scores of the academic achievement of students differ according to the follow-ups?<br>• Is there a relationship between the mean score of critical thinking and academic achievement score according to the follow-ups?<br>• Does critical thinking skill differ in terms of descriptive characteristics according to the follow-ups?</p> Yalçın KANBAY*, Elif IŞIK*, Özgür ASLAN*, Pınar TEKTAŞ**, Nurhayat KILIÇ* Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 5 12 12 10.28933/ajerr-2017-12-0501 An Assessment of Quality Issues in the provision of Early Childhood Development B in Zimbabwe https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/362 <p>The study sought to assess the quality of service delivery for the Early Childhood Development B (ECD B) programme in Zimbabwe. The study covered all the ten provinces of Zimbabwe and adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach was largely used to elicit views on quality provision of ECD B in Zimbabwe through the use of Focus Group Discussions, interviews, document analysis and observations. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from key informants such as head teachers, teachers-in-charge and teachers. The population from which the sample was drawn included all primary schools, Education officials at district, provincial and head office levels as well as registered ECD B centres in Zimbabwe. Random, convenience and purposive sampling procedures were used to select the study sample. The study used two types of quality indicators for Early Childhood Development programmes namely structural and process quality indicators. According to Lamb (2000) structural quality indicators of ECD programmes include: teacher-pupil ratio (number of children per teacher), qualifications, experience and working conditions of teachers. Process quality indicators of ECD programmes include: the physical environment (consisting of indoor and outdoor facilities), curriculum and assessment. Findings revealed that quality is compromised because most ECD B classes in Zimbabwe are manned by unqualified teachers because qualified teachers are still very few. Teacher effectiveness which is brought about by knowledgeable and qualified teachers is a key component of quality ECD B provision. The study also revealed that it is a challenge to get qualified teachers to work in poor rural and otherwise difficult-to-reach communities thus compromising the provision of quality ECD B in these areas. The teacher-pupil ratio at ECD B level in most parts of Zimbabwe is high, that is, it is way above the stipulated ratio of 1:20. A desk study of the Zimbabwean ECD curriculum indicates that it is effective and of good quality in that it is inclusive, play based and activities are developmentally appropriate. It is inclusive in that it welcomes learners in their diversity and can adapt to meet their learning needs which is one of the attributes of quality education. From the information obtained, it is very clear that most indoor facilities for ECD B classes in Zimbabwe are inadequate. Most schools in all the ten provinces do not have adequate outdoor facilities for the ECD B children. The study showed that the majority of schools provide safe water for drinking and washing. It is clear from the study that most schools have separate toilets for the ECD B children. Most of the respondents from the ten provinces indicated that the ECD B teachers assess children’s holistic development using developmental skills checklists. Responses from ECD B teachers indicated that there is inadequate support from the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education (MoPSE) in the following areas: allowances for para-professionals, teaching and learning materials, ECD B facilities and infrastructure, capacity building workshops, supervision by Ministry officials, and provision of circulars. The study concluded that while increased enrolments may suggest school systems have increased their capacity to accommodate more children, this did not necessarily translate into improved educational quality because of inadequate financial, material and human resources. Inadequate supply of these resources has curtailed the effectiveness and efficiency of ECD B provision in Zimbabwe.</p> J. Musiyiwa and E.Chikwiri Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 5 11 11 10.28933/ajerr-2017-12-1501 Investigation of the Effects of the Different Training Program to the Success Applied to Long Distance Athletes With Athletics Sports in A?ri https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/361 <p>The main purpose of this research is to demonstrate the alternative training programs applied to professional national athletes performing athletics in A?r? and the effects of such training programs upon the athletes’ success.<br>For this purpose, the related literature has been examined in order to give detailed information about the research problem. Within the scope of the research, an alternative training program was applied to national athletes performing athletics and a solution to the research problem is sought through the obtained findings. 10 male national team athletes among 23-25 age group, regularly exercising the alternative training program developed by M. ?irin Gönen participated in the study. The study is divided into 2 phases. The first phase is taken as the Preparation Phase while the second one is the Competition Phase. 1st and 2nd phases continued for three months (November-December-January) during which same training programs were repeated by the athletes each month. At the end of January, the athletes were given a 5.000 meters of a test run and the results obtained were recorded. In the Competition Phase, a new training program for the competition period was developed and applied to the athletes through the obtained data. The grades obtained before and after the practice have been determined, compared and evaluated. The Preparation Periods and the Competition Periods of the training athletes and the time intervals they have achieved after the training are shown in Table 1-2-3-4. The results of the competition has been announced on Turkish Athletics Federation official web page.</p> 1Metin BAYRAM ,.2Vahit DOĞAR 2Kenan ŞEBİN Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-07-18 2017-07-18 5 5 5 10.28933/ajerr-2017-11-0304 Analysis on Occupational Self-Efficacy of Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/360 <p>In this study, the purpose is to analyze the self-efficacy beliefs of the elementary mathematics and science teachers according to a group of variables. For this purpose, “Teacher Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale” developed by Kahyao?lu and Yang?n (2007) and personal information form that is composed by the researcher are used as the data collection tool to measure the self-efficacy of teachers. The study is conducted in the spring semester of the 2016-2017 school year. The sample of the study consists of a total of 91 teachers, of which 44 are Elementary Mathematics Teacher and 47 are Science Teacher serving in public schools in Bitlis’s Tatvan district. For the analysis of the collected data, the unpaired t-test and ANOVA were applied. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that occupational self-efficacy levels of prospective teachers are on “Very Efficient” level. In addition, it is determined that there are no statistically significant differences in mean scores of teachers’ occupational self-efficacy beliefs in terms of gender, education type, and the graduated department but in terms of the types of high schools which they graduated from. Only this variable shows a statistically significant difference.</p> Cahit Taşdemir Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-10-18 2017-10-18 5 9 9 10.28933/ajerr-2017-11-1201 Measure for Assesing Religious Teacher’s Perception of Intention to Adopt Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/359 <p>This study was conducted to produce empirical evidence of validity and reliability of a set of questionnaire. Questionnaire drawn from the results of previous studies and the validity of the tests will determine whether all aspects of the construct domain were represented, thus ensuring the high objectivity level of the questionnaire. In addition, an alternative approach was used to assess the discriminant validity, using heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations. The study empirically proves that the questionnaire used is unchanged by culture. This is important because if not, its use will be restricted to a population in which the questionnaire was developed.</p> Ahmad Shidki Mat Yusoff Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-10-18 2017-10-18 5 10 10 10.28933/ajerr-2017-11-1601 Domestic Violence Against Women in the Effutu Municipalityin the Central Region of Ghana: Implications for Counselling https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/358 <p>The study investigated the prevalence of domestic violence within the Effutu Municipality, it also examined how counselling programmes can assist in addressing domestic violence within the municipality. The study employed a cross sectional survey design and collected both quantitative and qualitative data. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 300 respondents for the quantitative study, while purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of 12 interviewees for the qualitative aspect of the study. Quantitative data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential analysis while qualitative data was analysed using content and thematic analyses. The study revealed that Christians and traditionalists differed in their views with regards to cultural and life-time perceptions about domestic violence. Additionally, educational level attained also influenced respondents’ perceptions on domestic violence against women in the Effutu Municipality. It was also revealed that though, there are institutions that offer services to reduce or forestall the incidence of domestic violence; both victims and perpetrators did not receive any counselling in any form. It is therefore recommended that Effutu municipal assembly hire professionally trained counsellors, and attach them to the various institutions that deal with issues bordering on domestic violence.</p> Phoebe Agyei (Ms) and Rev. Kwesi Nkum Wilson (PhD) Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 15 15 10.28933/AJERR-2017-12-1001 SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION REFERRED TO AS HIV/AIDS https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/357 <p>Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as AIDS. This stage is often also associated with weight loss. HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV.</p> 1Md. Abu Salek, 2Jannatun Nayeem Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 14 14 10.28933/ajerr-2017-12-0502 Nutrition Attitudes and Information Levels of Football Referees https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/356 <p>This study aims at revealing the changes in nutrition attitude and knowledge levels of football referees. 130 referees actively serving as Candidate, Provincial and Regional Referees in Izmir, Konya, Aksaray and Ni?de provinces constituted the sample group of the study. The personal information form was used in obtaining the socio-demographic information, and the nutrition knowledge and attitude scale developed by Ertürk (2010) was used in determination of the nutrition attitude and knowledge. The variance and homogeneity of the data were tested, “Independent Samples t Test” was used for binary comparisons, “One Vay Anowa” for differences between groups in multiple comparisons, and “Tukey” test for the determination of variation sources. The nutritional attitudes of the provincial and district referees were higher than those of the candidate referees and the nutritional information of the candidate referees were higher than the provincial and district referees and this change was statistically found to be significant (P &lt;0.05). While no change due to the gender factor was observed, nutrition information of the referees received nutrition lessons was found to be higher than the referees who did not, and this change was statistically found to be significant (P &lt;0.05). No difference was found in nutritional attitudes and knowledge of the referees depending on factors such as age, income, sibling, years of service, and level of education. As a result, it can be said that candidate referees who have just started their duties have more nutrition knowledge than provincial and district referees, and provincial and district referees have better nutrition attitudes than candidate referees. Football referees are thought to be an important issue in renewing their nutritional attitudes and knowledge in order to improve their performance and quality of life.</p> 1İbrahim Muhammed Salih İBRAHİM,1Hayri DEMİR,2Mehmet ALTIN Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 13 13 10.28933/ajerr-2018-01-0103 Extent of Application of Strategic Management Control in the Management of Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/355 <p>The main purpose of the study was to ascertain the extent of application of strategic management control in the management of tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was a descriptive survey research guided by one research question and one null hypothesis. All the four public and private universities in Anambra State of Nigeria were studied. The population of the study comprised two-hundred (200) respondents while the sample of the study comprised one hundred and fifteen (115) respondents made up of all the twenty (20) core management staff, thirty (30) Deans selected through purposive sampling technique and sixty-five (65) HODs selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique using 50 percent of the total population of the HODs. The instrument for data collection was researchers-developed questionnaire titled “Strategic Control Application Questionnaire” (SCAQ). The reliability of SCAQ was determined using 20 respondents from tertiary institutions in Ebonyi State. Cronbach alpha statistics was used to measure the internal consistency of the items which yielded the means of 0.83. The researchers personally administered copies of the instrument on the respondents in their respective institutions. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviations and ANOVA. The findings of the study indicated among others that strategic management control was applied to a low extent in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. It was among others recommended that the ministry of education should attempt organizing for managers regular workshops, short courses and seminars on strategic management control to enable them grasp the fundamentals and have confidence in managing strategically and that NUC should ensure that strategic management control is included in its criteria for accrediting tertiary institutions.</p> Okeke Ifediorah Nonyem and Okaforcha Choice Chima Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 16 16 10.28933/ajerr-2018-01-1201 Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo- A Critical Analysis https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/354 <p>Sri Aurobindo , was an Indian nationalist, freedom fighter, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet. He joined the Indian movement for freedom from British rule, for a while became one of its influential leaders and then turned into a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Swami Vivekananda, known in his pre-monastic life as Narendranath Datta, was born in an affluent family in Kolkata. His father,Vishwanath Datta, was a successful attorney with interests in a wide range of subjects, and his mother, Bhuvaneshwari Devi, was endowed with deep devotion, strong character and other qualities. A precocious boy, Narendra excelled in music, gymnastics and studies. By the time he graduated from Calcutta University, he had acquired a vast knowledge of different subjects, especially Western philosophy and history. These, then the Shâstras, the Guru, and the Mother¬land are the three notes that mingle themselves to form the music of the works of Vivekananda .The present paper brings out the critical analysis of the philosophies of the two great spiritual philosophers and writers in a comparative style.</p> S.Lalitha Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 17 17 10.28933/ajerr-2018-01-2401 Servant leadership, Institutional Health and Effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/353 <p>The study was aimed to examine the practices and correlates among servant leadership, institutional health and effectiveness in Ethiopian Teacher Training Colleges. It was descriptive survey and correlation study conducted in sample teacher training colleges. In sum, 160 participants consisted of 52 academic staff (male=38; female=14), 54 administrative staff (male=23; female=31) and 54 students (male=43; female=11) were participated. Stratified and simple random sampling methods were employed to select samples. Mean, t-test, correlations and regressions were used to analyze data. In addition, the results were significant at p&lt;0.05. As a result, the mean value for the practice of servant leadership in colleges understudy showed ‘middle’ or ‘sometime’ level. Besides, the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated moderate positive relationships between servant leadership and organizational health (r= 0.663). The regression analysis result also showed that the contribution of servant leadership to institutional (college) health was found to be R2=0.440, F=123.924, P&lt;0.05 indicating that 44% of the health of the institution (College) was explained by servant leadership practices and behaviors exhibited by leaders and staff in their respective work units. On top of this, Pearson correlation analysis was made between institutional health and effectiveness. As a result, it has showed statistically significant and strong positive correlation (r=0.723). It was also found out that 52.27% of institution’s (college’s) effectiveness or goal achievement was explained by healthy working conditions and environments created in each work unit. Moreover, the correlation between servant leadership and institutional (college) effectiveness also indicated statistically significant and moderate positive correlation (r= 0.612). Thus, among other factors, 37.45% of institution’s (college’s) effectiveness in goal achievement was determined by the application of servant leadership principles and behaviors. Therefore, to have conducive and healthy working institutions that give due care for their employees with service-oriented mindsets and enhance goal attainment as well as develop employees’ commitments for the job, leaders in sample colleges and others are advised to behave as servants for their constituents and apply servant leadership approach in their respective work contexts.</p> Fentahun Mengistu Bite Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 18 18 10.28933/ajerr-2018-02-1501 Same Old Sun, New Shadows: A Postcolonial and Feminist Reading of Yvonne Vera’s The Stone Virgins https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/352 <p>The article examines the extent to which Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be read as a historiography of post-independence Zimbabwe. Some scholars accuse Vera in The Stone Virgins for fanning tribal friction, polarizing the nation and subverting the official war narrative. Our primary purpose is to explore the text to foreground the subtle discursive strategies as the text comments on the national historiography of Zimbabwe as a postcolonial nation-state. The article attempts to ascertain whether the textual narrative is ‘like the sun’, whether the text candidly offers alternative narrative by way of ‘writing in’ the elided aspects of the postcolonial experience (telling it blunt), or it subtly negotiates for the right to remember, heal and belong (telling it slant). The present article is therefore guided by two objectives, that is, to explore whether Vera’s The Stone Virgins can be regarded as historiography of post-independent Zimbabwe and also to examine whether the novel negotiates for closure and healing or simply opens up old wounds to fan social strife and polarity.</p> Tshabalala Makhosini1 and Kadodo Webster2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 12 12 10.28933/ajerr-2017-12-2801 Integration through Peers – A Study on the Integration of Migrant Children in Pupil Networks in four German Secondary Schools https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/351 <p>This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in four diffenrent schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that the pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into the class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated.</p> 1Dipl.-Geogr. Philipp Aufenvenne, 2Jun. Prof. Dr. Miriam Kuckuck, 1MA Nina Leimbrink, 1BA Max Pochadt, 1Prof. Dr. Malte Steinbrink Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 19 19 10.28933/ajerr-2018-02-0101 The Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of ICT as a Tool for Early Childhood Development Teaching and Learning: A Case for Women’s University in Africa in-Service Student Teachers https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/350 <p>The purpose of this study was to find out the teachers` perceptions on the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as a tool for teaching and learning at Early Childhood Development (ECD) level. A sample of 12 female in –service student teachers from the Women’s University in Africa was used. The study utilised both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected through the use of a questionnaire while qualitative data was gathered through Focus Group Discussions with 12 in- service student teachers to gather in –depth information on the use of ICTs as a tool for ECD teaching and learning. The research findings revealed that the student teachers concurred that ICTs are indeed an emerging tool in enhancing the quality of teaching and learning. Student teachers revealed that they perceive ICTs to be good since they promote child-centered learning. ICT motivates children to learn using multi-sensory displays that accommodate their individual differences . The findings also revealed that ICTs assist in the simulation of the outside world in a way that saves time and resources. However, lack of resources and lack of ICT knowledge by the authorities in the schools were cited as major barriers to the integration of ICTs in the ECD curriculum. The study concluded by recommending that professional development workshops should be held from time to time so as to improve practice. A variety of ICT gadgets should be provided in schools. Policy provisions which promote the use of ICTs should be put in place by the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education. Personnel should be allocated to assist in the public use of ICT tools and materials.</p> Dr. P. Kashora, Dr. E. Chikwiri and C.Kuranga Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 26 26 10.28933/ajerr-2018-04-0901 Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors’ Task Performance in Secondary Schools in Anambra State https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/349 <p>This study investigated teachers’ perception of guidance counselors’ task performance in secondary schools in Anambra State. Four research questions guided the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 6,857 teachers from 257 public secondary schools in Anambra State. A sample of 685 was drawn using proportionate stratified random sampling techniques. Data was collected using a questionnaire of 30 items developed by the researcher and titled ‘’Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors Task Performance Questionnaire’’ (TPCTPQ) which was validated by experts. Internal consistency reliability index of 0.82 was obtained for the entire instrument using Cronbach’s alpha. Data analysis was done using mean and standard deviation for the research questions, while t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The finding reveals among others that Teachers’ Perception towards guidance counsellors Task Performance is high. Male and female teachers’ perception towards guidance counsellors’ tasks performance is high. Teachers in urban and rural areas perceive guidance counsellors’ tasks performance as being high. The study also found that teachers in urban and rural areas did not differ significantly in their perception of guidance counsellors’ task performance. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that there is need to have professionally trained school counselors for effective delivery of guidance and counseling services in the schools. There is also need for sufficient facilities and finances for effective delivery of guidance and counseling tasks.</p> EGENTI UJU. P. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 20 20 10.28933/ajerr-2018-03-0901 Is Teacher Education level and Experience impetus for student achievement? Evidence from public secondary schools in Kenya https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/348 <p>This study established whether advanced degrees and years of teaching experience are associated with student science achievement gains in Public Secondary schools in Kenya. In particular, the study differentiated education level into advanced degrees in Science and advanced degrees in any major, and experience into general years of teaching experience and years teaching Science in general and at grade 12. Teaching quality factors drawn from dynamic model of teacher effectiveness were utilized in the model to establish if they mediated the effect of teacher’s education level and experience on student achievement. A sample of 610 respondents was sampled consisting of 570 respondents consisting of 450 students and 120 grade 12 Science teachers was selected from 40 public secondary schools in the county.2-Level Hierarchical linear modelling was used to disentangle variance associated with students nested within classes and teachers nested within four categories of high rank and low rank schools in the County. The study found no variation in teacher qualification ,between high and low ranking secondary schools with respect to education level(X2=0.324; df =2, P=0.065, and experience (X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.066), but only with a small difference in grade 12 experience between low ranked and high ranked schools(X2=0.824, df=3, P=0.046). With regards to proportion of variance due to nested data, 20.8% of variance in student achievement was amongst student while the rest was within classrooms (teachers). With regards to teacher experience, teachers with more than two years of grade 12 experience will improve student scores by 1.15 units while those teachers without such experience will improve scores by 0.83. With regards to education level, a teacher with advanced degree chemistry or education will improve student achievement gains by 0.085 units, while that with no advanced degree in any major will result to only 0.067 unit increase in student chemistry achievement. The study, recommends that the teacher service commission of Kenya acknowledges that advanced degrees currently acquired by teachers have significant effect to student and as such, teachers with such degrees and experience should adequately be remunerated.</p> Duke D Obonyo1, Prof Chen Bin1, Gichuru F Maina2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 21 21 10.28933/ajerr-2018-04-0101 A Study of Classroom Assessment Practices: Challenges and Issues in the Context of Public Secondary Schools of Karachi Pakistan https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/347 <p>This study presents the conceptualized analysis understanding about the current assessment practices and the authentic assessment practices in education and integration of real-world task in classroom assessment. The main focal point of this research is to identify the challenges and issues of classroom assessment practices in the context of public secondary schools of Karachi Pakistan. The research was conducted in Karachi East District. The samples of 100 were gathered randomly from the Government Girls Secondary School Gulshan-e-Iqbal block 6 near NIPA, Government Girls Secondary School University Campus adjacent to Karachi University, Government Boys Secondary school no. 2 near Nursery Flyover, Ghausia Colony, Karachi. The survey questionnaire was developed on current assessment practices. The findings of the study highlight that current assessment practices follow the traditional settings and there is need to integrate different types of activities and feedback trends to make students competent.</p> Shagufta Shazadiy and Afshan Rafa Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 27 27 Intercultural Marriage, a Social Indicator of Adaptation in Sino-African Civil Union: Case of Guangzhou People’s Republic of China https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/346 <p>Marriage is the union of two peoples and consequently of two families and two cultures. In traditional Chinese society, everybody gets married for the sake of family continuity. This is because bringing forth a child is seen as a contribution to perpetuate family name. It is meant for two as families to seal stronger bonds together. It’s therefore observed that, marriage in Chinese Society is conceived for the families rather than for the sharing love. Consequently, the marriage becomes a social construction. The only credible unions with the eyes of the society were those which linked two individuals presenting some similarities from the social, ethnic, racial, cultural and/or religious. The concept of adaptation and the notion of entropy will be employed the theoretical level to show that mixed marriages are the result of complex processes tending to homogenize populations who are from different cultures but who live in permanent contact. To collect the qualitative, we have used the methods of data-gathering, such as documentary review, individual and institutional interview using the guides of interview.</p> TANO Kouassi Joseph and SUN Qiu Yun Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 22 22 10.28933/ajerr-2018-05-0301 Pyramid Power in Colors https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/345 <p>The infamous ‘pyramid’ question on the Math section of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) was reconsidered. Illustrations in colors are presented with a new possible scoring key. Some practical consequential issues are discussed.</p> Seock-Ho Kim, Mi-Ran Kim, Naanhee K. Kim, and Yoonhee K. Kim Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 23 23 10.28933/ajerr-2018-05-0303 Computer self-efficacy and attitudes toward internet usage among library and information science postgraduate students in two library schools in Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/344 <p>In integrating computers in higher education, researchers have proposed that positive attitudes toward computers and high computer self-efficacy levels could be important factors in helping students learn computer skills and use computers. It is also expected that LIS Postgraduate students should be knowledgeable and comfortable with electronic resource usage. It is against these backgrounds that this study was conducted. Suvey research design was adopted, the population was Library and Information Science postgraduate students in two selected library schools in Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire, two hundred and thirty nine (239) copiesof questionnaire were administered, two hundred and seven (207) were sucessfully retrieved and found to be useable, representing 86.6% response rate. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferencial statistics. Results showed that in spite of the potentials emerging technologies offers in Library Schools globally, in Nigeria, there is not very evidential that Library Schools are integrating ICTs into their instructions. It was found that among the two library schools studied, there were no operational/functional computer laboratory with internet facilities, access by students were restricted due to limited space as at the time of this study, this go a long way to show that LIS postgraduate students depend solely on their PCs with modem as alternative internet connector or commercial cyber café as the last resort. The above confirmed that there was no computer laboratory with functional internet facilities for postgraduate students as the time of this study. Recommendations for the study include that drastic measures should be taken by LIS educators/administrators to provide computers with functional internet facilities to LIS postgraduate students in their various schools to eliminate any barrier confronting them in order to enhance efficiency and quality of teaching, learning and research services. It was also recommended that other researchers should study more library schools in Nigeria on ICT integration and usage.</p> Olalekan Abraham Adekunjo1 and Stanley Omondiale Unuabor. (CLN)2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 24 24 Holistic Global Citizenship Education & Global Entrepreneurship for the Challenge of the 21st Century https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/343 <p>The 21st Century brought global issues the world has never faced before. Climate challenge and destruction of the environment raise the issues of ecological preservation. Poverty and youth unemployment precipitates the issues of social inclusion. Extreme violence and moral hazard bring up the issue of social inclusion. These challenges are interconnected. It cannot solve all of them by improving one of them. Then how can we solve them? It is only possible when we address the fundamental causes. What are the basic causes of challenge? They are mainly originated by man-made and man-induced behavior and characteristics. Humanity stands at the center of these global challenges. The key solution is changing human beings. How can we change human beings? The only solution is education. Through education, we can transform the human mind and tide over the unprecedented 21st Century.<br>However, the current education system does not provide solutions to global challenges. It mainly pursues the economic growth and development. Schools and universities focus on building competences rather concentrate raising human resources to prepare the future. We need a new educational paradigm not only to train expertise, but also to cultivate the mind sets, value and attitudes to engage in global issues. The paradigm should bring the realization that we exist, not merely as an independent person, but interdependent beings mutually interconnected. It should also address interdependence of economy, environment and society, in order to make the world sustainable.<br>Global Citizenship Education (GCED) has received the spot light as a new education paradigm to the formation and cultivation of global citizen. It considers overall global perspectives to open people’s eye and mind to the realities of the world. Hence. It is not only the issue of academy, but also issue of economy, environment and society. It is the issue of all of us. Global citizenship does not imply a legal status, referring more to sense of belonging to broader global community and a common humanity.<br>True education for human beings is not only conveying and transmitting knowledge but also cultivating the intellectual, moral, and spiritual realm beyond one’s physical body. Education means much more than passing on knowledge content to our students. It will also mean shaping their character and life. Holistic GCED is a key to transform human mind and our world. Holistic GCED requires a new educational content, transformative pedagogy, and actual practice worldwide. Holistic comprehensive education empowers people with the knowledge, skills and values they need to build a better world. Sustainable entrepreneurial success is predicated on strict adherence to honesty and integrity. Honesty, integrity, responsibility, and love are the essence of holistic GCED. The holistic global higher education is the key factor for achieving economic, social, and sustainable development in the 21st Century</p> Young-Gil Kim, Ph. D Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 25 25 10.28933/ajerr-2018-05-0302 Researching and developing interdisciplinary course that integrates science and art (CISA) https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/342 <p>In this study, the purpose is to develop students’ comprehensive ability and positive attitude and understanding of interdisciplinary knowledge. For this purpose, an interdisciplinary Course that Integrates Science and Art(CISA) of the elementary education is researched and developed according to the curriculum design and assessment. The study is conducted in the autumn semester of the 2018-2019 school year. The study adopts both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach is used to simply draw a point of view on the effect of curriculum through the use of interviews. The quantitative approach is used to detect the acquisition of knowledge, the acquirement of skill and promotion of attitude. The sample of the study consists of a total of 39 studens, of which 21 are female students and 18 are male students serving in public schools in China. According to the results of the research, it is found that this course improved students’ art creation and scientific ability and understanding of multidisciplinary concepts related to the art and science.</p> X. T. Yang1; M. M. Zhang2; Y. Yue1; Y. H. Zhao1; Han Hui3; Q. Wang1** Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 26 26 10.28933/ajerr-2018-06-1801 Private Estate Housing Productivity in Greater Port Harcourt, Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/341 <p>The housing deficit in Nigeria is reportedly of the order of 17 million units. The private sector remains the major supplier as in some other developing countries. However, productivity in Nigeria is hampered by many factors, including high cost of building materials, difficulty in obtaining title to land, a weak mortgage financing sector, and delay in obtaining building permit. In the study area, Greater Port Harcourt City, there is paucity of information on various aspects of housing, including supply, demand, nature of housing provided, satisfaction levels and relationship between housing and stage in the family life cycle. Therefore, the objectives of the research were to: (1) Ascertain the state of private residential housing estate development in GPHC; (2) ascertain the sources of private residential housing and the relative importance of private vis-à-vis public residential housing delivery; (3) critically examine the number, type and quality of housing provided in private residential estates and their functionality from the point of view of beneficiaries; and (4) ascertain bottlenecks to private residential estate housing delivery. This study was undertaken as a cross-sectional survey of (1) a probability sample of all persons residing in privately built estates and (2) all individuals or corporate firms who have supplied at least 4 building units and above constructed between 1978 and 2014 in Greater Port Harcourt City (GPHC). The research design used was the “passive-observational” method. The number of questionnaires administered to estate residents was 400 while the number administered to estate developers was 76. The study relied on two sources of information – primary and secondary. Primary sources comprised (a) a largely pre-coded questionnaire, administered face-to-face by trained interviewers, (b) Individual Depth Interviews (IDIs) of key informants, (c) direct observation, (c) measurement, and (d) photography. Secondary sources included: (a) unpublished and published material in past theses, books, journals, maps, etc; and (b) the Internet. Data analysis utilised mainly univariate and multivariate statistical analytical techniques. Analysis was carried out with the aid of the microcomputer – adapted Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16. The results showed that 1,761 housing units — mostly in Obio/Akpor LGA (80%) — were built by the private sector as opposed to 3,453 units by government. Housing types were single-family bungalow (28.3%), multi-family block of flats (26.8%), single-family storey building (18.8%), “wagon” rooming house (4.3%) and “courtyard” rooming house (1.8%). Four predictor variables — Access to Land, Mortgage Financing, Building Permit, and Title to Land could explain 85% of the variation in the dependent variable, Private Housing Productivity, with Title to Land being the most important. The study concluded, among others, that (a) the pace of private sector housing development in Greater Port Harcourt City was far short of what is needed to satisfy demand, given a population of the order of 2,000,000 growing at 5.8% per annum. Recommendations of the study include (a) Stamp Duty Subsidy such as “instruments, payable on documents such as Lease / Tenancy Agreements, Sale Purchase, Agreements, Transfer and Mortgages. (b)Government should formulate policies and implement techniques that promote liveability in Greater Port Harcourt City. (c) Making land available for estate developers or regulating the price of land can be implemented.</p> Dr, (Mrs) Augusta Ayotamuno1 And Obinna Victor Chika2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 27 27 10.28933/ajerr-2018-05-2501 Conceptual Tools for Building Higher Education Institutions Corporate Image and Reputation https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/340 <p>This paper draws from the concept of corporate identity as a socially constructed activity of strategising, approached with an understanding that promoting institutional image and identity is among the critical functions of an organisational strategy. Corporate image is most often seen as a compilation of optical fundamentals, which are used in promoting the picture of an institution, because every organisation has an identity and in this, it articulates the shared culture, values and aims, and present a sense of uniqueness that, can help to distinguish the organisation in its spirited educational environment. This conceptual paper draws from secondary and grey literature sources to explore how higher education institutions can promote their corporate identity and reputation in response to the changing competitive educational environment across the globe. We highlight several areas that can be supported in fostering higher education institutions corporate integrity and status.</p> Gilbert Ansoglenang1, Samuel A. Awugah2 and John Dadzie Thompson3 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 28 28 10.28933/ajerr-2018-08-1701 The Characteristics and Thoughts of Business Ethics Education in European and American Universities-(Retracted Article) https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/339 <p>Business professional ethics education is directly related to the adult talents of students. It is one of the important conditions for colleges and universities to provide qualified business talents for the society and employers, and to ensure the normal operation of the economy and social order in their industries and the entire country. From the perspective of literature research, this paper sorts out and analyzes the main characteristics of business ethics education in European and American universities, and puts forward some suggestions for Chinese business ethics education.</p> LI Xiang Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 34 34 10.28933/ajerr-2018-07-2808 A Comparative Study of Western Economics Teaching Methods (Retracted Article) https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/338 <p>This paper analyzes the characteristics and existing problems of Western economics courses, compares different teaching methods of Western economics, discusses the advantages and disadvantages and applicability of different teaching methods, and effectively improves the teaching effect of Western economics courses.</p> LIU Xiaowei Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 35 35 10.28933/ajerr-2018-07-2801 Intra-Party Primaries in Nigeria’s Democratization Process: a Historical Assessment https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/337 <p>The sprouting character of Nigerian politics from the last quarter of the colonial period to the present is reflected in the changing character of her party politics. Thus, from the ratification of regionalism by Author Richards in 1946 through the short period during the First Republic lasted, two foremost factors shaped the character of intra-party relations/politics: ethno-religious and, to a lesser extent, some feigning of ideological commitment. One of the main features of a political party is its ability not only to contest and win elections, but also to conduct internal elections among its various contestants with the aim of selecting the most suitable candidate that will serve the interest of the party. However, several issues have risen as a result of primary elections among the political parties in Nigeria which has not only affected the political party itself, but as well ruin the smooth running of democracy in the country. This paper historically assesses intra-party primaries in Nigeria’s Democratic process. It questioned the nexus between democracy, party primaries, intra-party conflict and law based union in Nigeria. This paper made use of both primary and secondary data.</p> S. O. Soetana1 and Oluwaseun Samuel Osadola2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 30 30 Capacity Building Needs of Education Lecturers in Information and Communication Technology in Universities https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/336 <p>This study investigated the capacity building needs of education lecturers in ICTs in universities in Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study, which adopted the descriptive survey design. A sample size of 320 education lecturers was drawn from four universities using stratified random sampling technique, representing 56% of the population. Questionnaire titled “HCBNELICTQ” was validated and the reliability established at 0.92. In analyzing the data, mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used in testing the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that, the capacity building needs of education lecturers on ICT for instructional delivery in universities include: knowledge of operating the ICT devices, good knowledge of handling the devices in teaching, clear skills of manipulating the devices for research and developments, using the devices to store and present academic data, and regular involvement of staff in knowledge updates through appropriate use of new technological devices. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers recommended that education lecturers should cultivate the right attitude to work for effective instructional task performance by maintaining the clarity of job responsibilities in the university system.</p> Dr. Nwabueze, Akachukwu L. and Nwokedi, Onuekwuzunma C. U. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 31 31 To Study Student Assessment: Explore Issues and Challenges of Practicum Course of B.Ed (Hons) program in Karachi, Pakistan https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/335 <p>Practicum is a tool for teacher’s prospective teacher’s development and it is 15 credit hours course in B.Ed (Hons) program. Numerous studied consider practicum as backbone for effective teacher’s development. The study was designed to explore issues and challenges of student’s assessment in practicum course of B.Ed (Hons).Objectives of study were to explore issues and challenges of student’s assessment in practicum course. Secondly developed applicable mechanism of assessment for practicum course and This study contributed valuable information regarding the implementation of practicum program with assessable assessment criteria. Qualitative method was employed, because it will give more comprehensive result for study. It helped researcher to analyzed problem in multiple ays. qualitative data collected through interview and focus group discussion. Qualitative data coded, categories and finally analyze. The following finding were concluded Lessoning planning and role of supervisor were found strong and effective areas of practicum. Students were using different teaching methods successfully. The university has no lab schools for practicum. Schools were found to be less cooperative. No significant difference was found in the effectiveness level of practicum in different schools.</p> Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 33 33 10.28933/ajerr-2018-06-0201 Training mode and advantages of American masters in clinical psychology https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/334 <p>This paper makes a systematic introduction to the objective, mode and advantages of the training of American masters in clinical psychology. The advantages are mainly reflected in diversified teaching evaluation methods, emphasizing comprehensive ability cultivation, focusing on the combination with the society, and open and active teaching system. Through the introduction, we hope to provide some references for the training of Chinese masters in clinical psychology.</p> Sheng-jun Wu, Xiu-chao Wang, Hui Wang, Xu-feng Liu* Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 34 34 10.28933/ajerr-2018-09-2801 Education Policy in South Sudan: Between the Peace Agreement, the Armed Conflict, the Villages and the Camps for the Internally Displaced People https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/333 <p>The government of South Sudan is struggling to organize the education system of this new country during the war that ended with the signing of peace agreement in 2005. Initiating the educational policy, reinforcing the education administration, creating a practical curriculum and training teachers are the basic problems needed to solve to insure a good learning future for all. But while searching for the solution to these crucial problems, another rebellion broke up from the sharing power between the president and the vice-president since 2013 undermining the success plan according to the international education plan of education for all, EFA.<br>This war sent many adults and children in the camps where there are no educational structures welcomed by a deep poverty which obliged everybody to lose or to restart their life full of hopeless.</p> Jacques Kubranz Buhendwa1 and Kenneth Adam Masungu2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 35 35 10.28933/ajerr-2018-09-2301 Perspective of Teachers on the Influence of Textbook Ratio on Quality Academic Achievement among Girls in Secondary Education in Kisumu County https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/332 <p>A number of studies both quantitative and qualitative have attempted to find out causes of challenges of low achievement in mathematics among girls. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of textbook ratio as an independent variable on academic achievement in mathematics among girls at form four level in secondary schools in Kisumu County. Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education examination results of girls who sat for the examinations between 2010 and 2014 constituted the dependent variable. The objective of the study was to establish the influence of textbook ratio on girls’ academic achievement in mathematics at secondary level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence between the independent and dependent variable using statistical data. The study was conducted in Kisumu County Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random Sampling was used to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. The sample constituted 39% of the study population. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis guide. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instrument was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data from interview schedule was analyzed by using thematic analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 was applied to assist in analyzing data. The findings of the study concluded that there was a negative relationship between textbook ratio and academic achievement in mathematics. The study recommended that only mathematics textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education should be availed for use and a textbook ratio of 1:1 should be strictly adhered to.</p> Josephine Adhiambo Agunda, Henry Onderi, Jack Ajowi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 36 36 10.28933/ajerr-2018-09-2101 Neuroanatomy teaching: an example of active teaching applied to medical formation https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/331 <p>The paradigm shift from traditional teaching to new methodologies faces the challenges of current implementation in universities, especially in health courses where it is necessary to adequately train professionals in ethical and moral aspects for social work and working in teams with social responsibility, with the capacity to adapt to technological challenges and the incessant search for knowledge. Active teaching methodologies are one of the options that can be applied to higher education in order to improve the training of students, preparing them to solve the problems that are bound to present themselves in professional activities. To verify whether or not an active methodology can improve learning within the difficult circumstances of traditional teaching of the neural pathways and structures of the spinal cord and encephalon in the basic discipline of neuroanatomy. Simple materials such as wood, A4 paper, cardboard, colored pencils or pens, colored threads and adhesive tapes were used to produce three-dimensional models that represent the pathways and structures of the medulla, brain stem, cerebellum and brain. The students were divided into groups of 5 and built the models after studying the textbook, internet sites and atlas. Another process was the condensing of various data to construct structure schemes, with free access to the websites in all cases. The models were made and studied, as well as the schemes. Spontaneous information from the students showed positive acceptance of the method, with few negative points being cited, at least not directly to the professor. The use of three-dimensional model constructions, two-dimensional schemes and digital technology in the teaching of neuroanatomy, integrated with an active methodology process, allowed the students to gain autonomy in the studies and develop a more comprehensive view of the content, to the extent that they felt satisfied in seeing the final model generated by their efforts, ultimately improving cognitive aspects in neuroanatomy.</p> Sophia Kelly Abreu de Castro1; Hisao Nishijo3; Tales Alexandre Aversi-Ferreira2,3 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 37 37 10.28933/ajerr-2018-10-2301 Instructors’ Responsiveness to Peer Led Team Learning pedagogical Initiative and Its Contributing Factors in Higher Education Institutions https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/330 <p>This manuscript was intended to investigate instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL change initiative and its contributing factors such as instructors’ attitude, work culture, leadership styles, and instructional delivery models. The study employed mixed method research design. 91 instructors were participated to fill in 5 point Likert and rating scale item questionnaires. An interview with key informants were conducted. The three HEIs instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL overall mean 2.8254 rested in disagree scale which implies instructors’ responsiveness to cooperative learning or PLTL was below average expectation. Thus, cooperative learning/PLTL pedagogical model application by the three HEIs did not achieve desired learning goals on learners . Transformational and servant leadership styles as well as communal culture showed more prediction and relationship with instructors responsiveness to cooperative learning and PLTL. Positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, interaction, and group process principles of cooperative learning were not implemented in the right way and did not result in desired learning goal. Pre, during and post instruction task categories were poorly implemented. Hence, instructors’ responsiveness to PLTL needs attention of instructors and institutional leaders for its improvement. Adjustments on instructors’ attitude, institutional leadership and culture styles with other situational factors may enhance PLTL practice and performance.</p> Ayetenew Abie Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 38 38 10.28933/ajerr-2018-11-0802 Extent of Implementation of ECE Programme by County Governments: The Case of Public Preschools in Eldoret West Sub-County, Kenya https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/329 <p>Kenya Constitution (2010) devolved the management of Early Childhood Development Education (ECE) to county governments. The 2014 County ECE Education Bill mandated the Country Governments with several responsibilities of managing ECE services. These included ensuring: all schools have a functional feeding programme; safety of all children; more teachers are employed to reduce the teacher-pupil ratio; quality assurance services are provided promptly; teachers undertake professional development courses including those of handling learners with special needs; all preschools are registered; and teachers are appropriately remunerated. However, various challenges continue to undermine implementation of ECE programmes at county level. Emile Durkheim’s Structural Functionalism Theory (1858-1971) informed the study and so points out that an institution should be structured in a way that various bodies are put in place so that each functions on behalf of the society. Findings indicate that Uasin Gishu County Government needs to put in more effort in order boost its current ECE provision services.</p> Selina J. Koskey, Hellen N. Inyega, Mulwa Peter K. Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 5 39 39 10.28933/ajerr-2018-11-1808 Acquisition of New Competencies of Science Teachers and Pre-graduate Physics Teachers in the Community of Practice https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/327 <p>The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of the project that is solved at the Faculty of Science in Olomouc, Czech Republic. One of the key activities of the project is to find critical themes of secondary school science subjects and prepare methodological materials according a deep analysis in the frame of the community of practice. It can be demonstrated that the community of practice (universities, secondary schools and non-profit organizations) can be of great importance for acquisition of new competencies of teachers so as students. 120 skilled teachers identified a set of critical sites of the secondary school science subjects curriculum. A number of key needs of in-service teachers have been identified too – the development of teachers’ competences in the field of didactics, in the field of reflection of their own teaching activities, the implementation of new teaching forms and methods of work with emphasis to the individual needs of learners within a heterogeneous group, the implementation of interdisciplinary relations.</p> Renata Holubova Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 40 40 10.28933/ajerr-2018-11-2508 Class Size and Quality Academic Achievement Among Girls in Mathematics in Secondary Education in Kisumu County https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/326 <p>Female students tend to take fewer mathematical courses at higher education level due to low performance in mathematics at secondary school level. A number of studies both qualitative and quantitative have attempted to find out causes of low achievement in mathematics among females, Researchers have majorly focused on school environment, biological factors and attitude. There was therefore need to conduct a study to establish the influence of class size on academic achievement among girls at form four level in public secondary schools in Kisumu County. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of class size on academic achievement among girls in mathematics at form four level. Correlation research design was applied to examine the degree of influence that exists between class size and academic achievement in mathematics. The study was conducted in Kisumu County of Kenya. The target population of the study consisted of 142 public secondary schools which presented female candidates for KCSE examinations between 2010 and 2014, 142 Principals, 142 Heads of mathematics department and 390 mathematics teachers who taught the girls under study. Stratified random sampling technique was applied whereby schools were categorized as girls’ secondary schools and mixed secondary schools. Purposive sampling was done to select all the 18 girls’ secondary schools in Kisumu County while random sampling was applied to select 38 out of 124 mixed secondary schools in Kisumu County. Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis. Instruments of data collection were validated by the researcher’s supervisors and reliability of the instruments was established through test retest method by carrying out a pilot study in 5 schools which were not part of the study sample. Quantitative data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics in form of frequency counts, percentages, means, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis. Qualitative data from interview schedule was analyzed by using thematic analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22 was applied to assist in analyzing data. The findings of the study concluded that there exists a positive relationship between class size and academic performance in mathematics. The study recommended a class size of 40 to enable teachers cater for individual interests of all learners.</p> Josephine Adhiambo Agunda, Henry Onderi, Jack Ajowi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 41 41 10.28933/ajerr-2018-09-2102 Relationship among Parenting Styles, Prosocial Behavior and School Performance of Students Who are Attending to Grade Seven and Eight State Schools https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/325 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine parenting style, prosocial behavior and students school performance in junior school. In addition, this study attempted to examine the level of parenting styles in their children school performance. Two ten hundred adolescents (Mean age = 14.9 years) measured their own prosocial behaviors, their perceptions of parenting styles of their parents and collected their academic scores from the record office of the schools. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Quantitative analyses (both descriptive and inferential statistics) were used to analyze the obtained data. The data collected were analyzed employing different statistical techniques like correlation, multiple regression, and path analysis. Analysis of the data revealed that parenting styles do have significantly higher involvement in their children’s school performance. Parenting styles have an effect on prosocial behavior of adolescents. Path analysis of the data showed that prosocial behavior has statistically significant contribution to the students school performance. Prosocial behavior also has mediate effect between parenting styles and school performance. The current study has significant implications for parents, schools, government and non government sectors and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents’ positive behaviors and performance and discouraging negative behaviors.</p> Alemayehu Belay Emagnaw1,2 and Jian-zhong Hong2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-01 2018-09-01 5 32 32 10.28933/ajerr-2018-06-0101 PhD Students Participate in the World’s Highest Academic Conference- A Study on the Difference Between Taiwan and Croatia https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/324 <p>In this study, as doctoral graduate students who participated positive action in international academic presentation between the International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE2015), and 2015 International Symposium on Cultural Differences (ISCD2016) and 2016 International Symposium on Urban Construction of Rural Culture (ISUCRC2014). This study aims to investigate the impact of International Conference between Taiwan and Croatia Country.<br>After the participation, there are summarized at detailed records, observation, analysis, and aggregate, study research of the three conferences in industry, government, academic research and training of situation. It gets ideas and thoughts to participate in international learning experience, academic exchanges worldwide situation in the region of the countries.<br>This study found that three sessions of proceeding from the paper submission, modification, transportation arrangements, booking travel and accommodation, applying grant, the agenda of Conference and workshop, welcome reception, opening ceremony and thematic papers published seminars, site management, exchange of experts, visiting travel event, banquet dinner party they also have a significant different.<br>This study is tangible to enhance citizen diplomacy, international perspective, and national academic standards. On the intangible outcomes of self-learning attitude adjustment, the spirit of action research, the assist of essay writing, the potential help of international perspective, the effectiveness and inspiration are unmatched. All of experiences to participants in the process cumbersome procedures login, application, registration and other detailing the process are learn. This information should help graduate students and scholars participated in similar International activities and Conference.</p> Biing-Huei Chen, Fei-Chuan Chen, Kuei-Chih, Chuang Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 42 42 10.28933/ajerr-2018-11-1508 The Positive Influence of Professional Practice on the Professional Identity of Social Work Major Students https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/323 <p>Based on the in-depth interviews with ten social work major students in Inner Mongolia university, a qualitative research was conducted on the positive impacts of professional internship on their professional identity. The research results show that professional practice can significantly affect the professional identity of social worker major students, and its impact is as follows: First, helping students strengthen self-knowledge and professional identity; Second, useful for students to integrate theoretical knowledge and practical skills and enhance their sense of achievement and career cognition. In addition, internship supervision helps students to improve professional skills and service capability.</p> Juan Li Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 43 43 10.28933/ajerr-2018-12-2509 Rubrics 101: What, When and How https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/322 <p>Alternative assessment is any type of assessment other than standardized tests/ achievement tests. Alternative assessments include observations, interviews, record reviews, and performance reviews that are less structured than formal assessments and may not be validated or tested for reliability. Examples of alternative assessments include portfolios, interest inventories, work samples, journals, observations, checklists, teacher made tests, and anecdotal records. This article pertains to the scoring of these types of alternative assessment using rubrics. As the title of this article implies, creating rubrics, rules for writing, scoring systems (checklists, rating scales, and holistic) will be provided along with a comparison of the three and errors that can be found that will decrease the validity of findings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Larry Beard, Joesph Akpan, Charles E. Notar (Emeritus), Larry Beard Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 44 44 10.28933/ajerr-2018-12-1408 Engaging Adolescent Readers: Flipped Learning at an Urban High School https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/321 <p>This study examines the efficacy of the flipped learning model within a secondary English classroom at a large, urban high school in the Southeastern United States. To understand the effectiveness of the flipped learning model, the primary author conducted an action research study designed to answer the following research question: will students see more growth than their peers in reading comprehension because of the flipped learning model? Over the course of a month-long instructional unit, students in two eleventh grade English classes encountered instruction via the flipped learning model or from a more traditional approach before being tested on their reading comprehension. Those students taking part in flipped learning scored higher than their peers who received instruction from a more traditional approach. Although modest, these findings suggest that the flipped learning model is effective at promoting reading comprehension.</p> Michael Schulte1 and Matthew D. Campbell2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 45 45 10.28933/ajerr-2019-02-0406 Causes of school failure https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/320 <p>The analysis of the problems of the teaching of the child shows that the origin of school failure comes down to psychological, sociological and pedagogical causes.</p> El houssine MABROUK1,2,3, Khalid EL KHATTABI1,2,4, Asmae BOUAYAD2, Karima AJDIR1,5 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 49 49 10.28933/ajerr-2019-02-1605 Influence of home and school based factors on pupils academic performance at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Makadara sub-County, Nairobi County https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/319 <p>The aim of primary education is to provide education at the basic level of all ongoing primary school pupils. This study was carried out to investigate influence of home and school based factors on pupil’s academic performers at Kenya certificate of primary education in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. The study adopted the ex-post facto design which involved the studies that investigate possible causes and effects by observing an existing condition and searching back in time for possible causal factors. It involved testing out possible antecedents of events that had happened and cannot be manipulated by the investigator. The study sampled 240 teachers, 39 Parents Association members and 150 pupils from class 6 and 7. The data collection instruments comprised of questionnaires and interview guide. Data collected was categorized, coded, analyzed then tabulated. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The analysis was both qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis considered use of frequency counts and distribution, tabulation totals and calculation of percentages aimed at generating the data collected into meaningful groups and frequency tables for further analysis. Qualitative analysis involved the conclusions from the respondents’ opinions. The study established that most parents had a college educational level, majority of the teachers were female whereas majority of the students were males. It also established that parental level of income influenced pupils’ performance in KCPE at 60%s. Physical facilities and teaching and learning resources were also cited as factors that highly influence performances. The researcher recommended that the parents should provide a conducive learning environment at home to give the pupils ample time and space to study. Parents ought to strive to provide the basic required learning materials that are vital for a good performance in the KCPE exam irrespective of their level of income. The government should endeavor to allocate funds to be used for improving on the existing teaching and learning resources in public primary schools while adding more. The government should allocate enough funds that will enable provision of key physical learning facilities.</p> Lewis Ngesu, Awuonda Faith Atieno Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 47 47 10.28933/ajerr-2018-12-0606 Child Criminal Personality Tendency Analysis Towards a moral life and character https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/317 <p>This study aims to analyze the relationship between the needs and general motivation of child convicts and family conditions of children. The results are used as a reference to determine the appropriate educational model towards moral life and character. The research sample of juvenile convicts who was assisted by the Bengkulu Special Class II Child Development Institution. The Edward Personal Preference Schedule (EEPS) test is used to determine the scale of the child’s needs related to the behavior they have done. Simple statistical analysis is used to analyze data. It is assumed that child convicts have a high potential or need to act criminally, because they have become convicts. The results of this study indicate that the aggressive potential of children is classified as moderate and low. Aggressive potential negatively correlates with Affiliate potential and Nurturance potential. They act criminal because of multi-factors.</p> Hadiwinartoa Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 46 46 10.28933/ajerr-2018-11-2806 Cultivating college students’ self-discipline consciousness under the new media environment https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/316 <p>Through the investigation and analysis of college students’ self-discipline in the new media environment, this paper summarizes the current situation and puts forward some feasible suggestions.</p> Yu Han Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 50 50 10.28933/ajerr-2019-04-2808 Under the background of new and old kinetic energy conversion, research on the integration and innovation of culture and packaging industry https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/314 <p>Under the background of new and old kinetic energy conversion, based on the traditional culture and the outer packaging industry, with the modern design concept, digital art techniques to design a combination of traditional culture and modern packaging packaging forms, to achieve innovative finished product design. And through the use of internet thinking to achieve the extension of traditional culture and the transformation of commercial value, effectively promote the upgrading of the level of traditional industries.</p> Lei Yu1, Hongli Wang1, Qingzhi Liu1*, Chenwei Meng1 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 51 51 10.28933/ajerr-2019-05-0607 Assessment of The Use of ICT By Distance Learning Students in The University of Ibadan, Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/313 <p>This paper reviews the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by students of Distance Learning Centre, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. There is no doubt that ICT is playing a vital role in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in terms of enhancing the provision of immediate assistant to the learners for their academic and administrative needs in large scale. It has been established that services cannot be performed in distance learning centres using traditional institutional system all alone. Therefore, ICT tools application has been incorporated to meeting the requirements of learners at various phases of learning cycle viz the admission phase and other services. The heterogeneous requirements in open distance learning has culminated into issues and challenges needed to be addressed in usage of the technologies and the service(s) being provided through ICT. Survey research design with the aid of questionnaire was employed to elicit response from the respondents. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample size of this work. The effectiveness, stimulating factors, issues and challenges confronting ICT usage, purpose as well as other challenges encountered by staff and students of University of Ibadan DLC were emphasised. Recommendations were made based on the findings.</p> ADEKUNJO, Olalekan Abraham (CLN)1, Stanley Omondiale Unuabor. (CLN)2, Fredrick Odion3, Susanah O. TOMOMOWO-AYODELE4 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 52 52 10.28933/ajerr-2019-04-1508 An Experimental Investigation on Use of Bitumen Emulsion in the Construction of Gravel Road https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/312 <p>The base soil is one of the nature’s most common construction materials. Almost all types of construction are built with or upon the soil since centuries till today. The most important and effective part of a road pavement is sub grade soil, its strength and stability. If strength of soil is poor, then stabilization is normally needed. Sub grade is sometimes stabilized or replaced with stronger soil material so as to improve the strength. Such stabilization is also suitable when the available subgrade is made up of weak soil and hence has poor stability. Increase in the sub grade soil, strength may lead to economy in the structural thicknesses of a pavement. The most commonly used materials for soil stabilization are Cement, fly ash, lime, fibers, polymers etc.<br>In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the properties of the gravel soil by adding bitumen emulsion. An attempt has been made to use the emulsion for improving the strength of gravel soil expressed in terms of CBR values which may prove to be economical and give better results. In this study, the whole laboratory work revolves around the basic properties of soil and its strength in terms of CBR. A little cement added to provide better soil strength. It is observed that excellent soil strength results have been achieved by using cationic bitumen emulsion (CMS) with little quantity of cement used as filler. The appropriate mixing conditions for gravelly soil with CMS bitumen emulsion are being first attempted. This is followed by deciding four particular material conditions to show the variation in dry density and CBR value to achieve the best possible strength properties of gravel soil.</p> Vishal Kumar Pala Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 53 53 Article Critique entitled: “The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy” https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/311 <p>The present paper offers a critical review of the article published under the title of “The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy”. The reviewed article aimed at examining the academic leadership practices of the Ethiopian Combined Army Academy’s Dean. Qualitative design was employed to attain its objective. Interview, observation and document review were employed as instruments of data collection. Hence, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and methodological approaches to qualitative research sought to critically appraise the article. Accordingly, albeit the article was written in line with qualitative research approach, it had some limitations that lessen its empirical power.<br>Bibliographic Citation “Tafere, M. (2014). The Leadership Practices of the Dean of Combined Arms Academy. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 6(5), 70-79.”</p> Eshetu Kibret Emiru Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 54 54 Perception of college students regarding the use of ICT: A case study in Monterrey, México https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/310 <p>The presenWe often take for granted that students have the basic skills and mastery of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), however, it has been confirmed that not all students are equally competent in this regard. From the theories of socialization and acceptance of the technology, a structural equation model (SEM) is built to explore the variance in basic ICT skills levels of students at a business school. With the application of a questionnaire that measured in detail ICT skills of new students in a higher education institution in Mexico, the main findings show that according to the tables of impact value between constructs and the significance between constructs, the skills have a significant and significant negative impact on the side of anxiety / behavior and on the side of the utility there is a strong, significant impact.</p> Araiza Vázquez, Maria de Jesús1 and Pedraza Sánchez, Erika Yadira2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 55 55 10.28933/ajerr-2019-05-0606 Discussion on the Benefits of Port and Shipping Enterprises Based on Game Theory https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/308 <p>In the field of port and shipping, the mutual interest relationship between the port and the shipping company has always been a hot topic.On the one hand, the port needs the shipping company to park its port operations to obtain economic benefits and social benefits.On the other hand, shipping companies have their own considerations when facing different types of ports, and must consider them from the perspectives of maximizing their own interests and optimizing service levels.In this paper, the Stackelberg model and the Nash equilibrium model in game theory are used to analyze the basis of the choice of the interests of the port and shipping enterprises to establish a multi-influence factor and multi-targeted model of the profit distribution of the port and shipping enterprises.According to the research in this paper, the appropriate cooperation between the two parties can further enhance the efforts of the port and shipping companies, and realize the rational distribution of interests between the port and the shipping company, so as to achieve a win-win situation in the entire port supply chain.</p> LI Mao1 and ZHANG Shibin2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 57 57 10.28933/ajerr-2019-06-0205 Design of reverse logistics network for the end-of-life automobiles based on sustainable development https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/307 <p>From the point of view of sustainable development, a multi-objective mixed integer model to solve the problem of location and flow distribution of reverse logistics network of end-of-life automobiles. To reflect the various aspects of sustainable development, not only to minimize the objectives of economic cost and environmental cost, at the same time with the maximization of social benefits as the goal. Combined with the case, using the ideal point method by using lingo, it is concluded that the sustainable of scrapped automobile reverse logistics network optimization scheme. In addition, the impact of government subsidy on the sustainability of reverse logistics network is analyzed. In addition, the uncertainty of product recovery and the influence of government subsidy on the sustainable development of reverse logistics network are analyzed. The results show that end-of-life automobiles with more dismantled products have a greater impact on the sustainability of reverse logistics network, and government subsidies have an ideal interval to make the sustainability of reverse logistics network reach the best state.</p> LIU Kun, ZHANG Rong Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 58 58 10.28933/ajerr-2019-07-2306 The concepts of Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Training and Adult Education https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/305 <p>The concepts of learning and education, even if they have common semantic starting points, are synonymous, and in recent decades, there has been a shift towards the notion of learning as a dominant concept (Jarvis, 1995). Many scholars have tried to define the complex nature of learning. Jarvis (1995) considers that “learning is the process of transforming experience into knowledge, skills, attitude, values, feelings”. According to UNESCO, education is “organized teachings designed to convey a combination of knowledge, skills and understanding, valuable to all activities of life” (Jarvis, 1995). From the above we can conclude that education as a concept and as a process is more structured and more organized than learning, yet the concept of learning is wider and encompasses the concept of education, taking into account the fact that not all forms of learning have an educational character.</p> Georgios Giannoukos, Vasiliki Iliopoulou, Vasilios Hioctour, Christos Galiropoulos Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 59 59 10.28933/ajerr-2019-07-2005 Here We Go Again: An Analysis of Re-Segregation in Georgia Charter Schools https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/303 <p>Scholars note that failing public schools are the civil rights issue of our day (Frankenberg, 2011; Orfield, 2004). The current discussion about school reform in the U.S. over the past two decades has shifted from one of equity to one based on excellence in the form of student achievement. A primary solution for student achievement has been popularized and made into dominant discourse through legislation such as No Child Left Behind (2001) and Race to the Top (2009). In this analysis, the author provides a historical context of the charter school movement as a backdrop for charter school enrollment trends and policy in Georgia. As charter schools in Georgia continue to gain popularity as a primary school choice option for African American students, it is essential that policymakers create charter legislation that encourages the creation of socioeconomically and racially diverse schools. Moreover, both policymakers and stakeholders in education need to decide to what end are we expanding choice, and what kinds of choice might get us closer to more integrated, and ultimately, democratic schools?</p> Andrea N. Smith Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 60 60 10.28933/ajerr-2019-07-1605 Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the Achievement of Pre-service Mathematics Teachers in Mathematics Education https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/301 <p>The role of Mathematics educators in teaching – learning process cannot be exaggerated. This paper presents Technological Pedagogical Selection Content Knowledge (TPSACK) framework on the achievement of pre-service Mathematics teachers in College of Education Mathematics. One hundred and fifty (150) Pre-Service Mathematics teachers in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto – Ijanikin, in Lagos State, Nigeria were chosen for this research. Random Sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample chosen includes second year male and female pre-service mathematics teachers in the Department of Mathematics. Seventy five (75) of them were placed in an Experimental Group and the other seventy five (75) were placed in Control Group without any bias. The experimental group was exposed to the lectures taught with a well-organized TPSACK framework on some selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics while the Control Group was subjected to the traditional lecture method (constructivist instruction mode) on the same selected Mathematics courses in college mathematics. The duration of the pilot test last for ten (10) weeks. Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) instrument was used to measure the performance of the students in the two specified groups. 2 tailed t-test statistics was used to analyse the numerical data got from the Mathematics Achievement Test. The result shows that the students in the experimental group taught subject to TPSACK framework outperformed their counterparts in the control group taught with traditional lecture mode. Hence, the adaptation of TPSACK framework in teaching and learning process has significant positive effect on the achievement of Pre-service mathematics teachers in mathematics. It then becomes a key reference for the Mathematics educators to equip themselves with TPSACK framework adaptation to enhance teaching and learning process in Colleges of Education.</p> Philip Ajibola Bankole, Sunwa Adedoyin Raji, Ibraheem Abiola Alabi Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 61 61 10.28933/ajerr-2019-06-2506 Factors influencing the Pursuit of IT Certifications https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/300 <p>This quantitative study attempted to understand the factors that influence students at the large university in south-eastern United States to pursue Information Technology (IT) certification. The study investigated the problem of determining the factors that influence college students to pursue IT certification along with their academic degree and thereby increase their chances of gaining employment and increasing completion rates for the college resulting in increased state funding. This influence may lead to higher job placement after graduation resulting in an increase in completion rates for each college. The results showed that 91.7% of the respondents were inclined to take the certification exam if it means job security. Of all the participants, 88.4% indicated that they would take the certification exam if their future job requires it. A statistically significant difference was found between students’ rank and their perception on the statement “Schools prepare me for the certification exam.” A statistically significant difference was also found between students’ GPA and their perception on the statement “I am inclined to take the certification exam if I get reimbursed for my testing fee after passing the test.” The goal of the study was to provide information that can be used to improve students’ perceptions of the importance of certifications as well as to identify and address weaknesses in curriculum and/or interaction with students that can be addressed to improve students’ perceptions related to the importance of certificates. It also created a foundation for administrators and instructors in IT programs throughout the educational system to influence students in pursuing IT certification.</p> Wei-Chieh Wayne YU1*, Chunfu Charlie LIN2, Emily WU2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-18 2019-07-18 5 62 62 10.28933/ajerr-2019-07-2805 A study of “Micro STEM” Physics Classroom Teaching https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/298 <p>This paper explores the “Micro STEM” physics classroom teaching from the two aspects of pre-class design ideas and teaching links, and conducts an investigation on the teaching effect of students after class. The study finds that “Micro STEM” classroom enables students to understand and use the target knowledge better than traditional classroom, and students’interest in learning and classroom participation are higher. It is helpful to cultivate students’ability to discover and solve problems and sense of teamwork, and to improve students’ core scientific literacy.</p> Shanchao Guan1,2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 63 63 10.28933/ajerr-2020-01-1005 Analysis of Non-parametric Qualities of Undergraduate Biology Examination Questions in a Nigeria University: Implications for Quality Assurance and Students’ Learning https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/297 <p>This study employed ex-post facto research design to ascertain non-parametric qualities of past undergraduate biology examinations questions in a Nigeria university. The study covered a period of five years examination sessions from 2012/2013 to 2017/2018 but excluded 2016/2017.One hundred and seven examination question papers with a total One thousand one hundred and ninety eight mainly essay and sub-essay questions were collected for this study. Using descriptive content analysis method, the study analysed the content validity and the cognitive content of the biology examination papers. Descriptive statistics, mainly percentage was used to determine the proportion of the questions set on the content of each course in context of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Abuja, Nigeria, Benchmark for Minimum Academic Standard (BMAS, 2007) and the in-use university academic prospectus undergraduate biology curriculum. The analysis revealed;<br>i.80% of the content of the biology curriculum was tested and<br>ii.(ii) the examination tested more of lower order cognitive abilities; knowledge and comprehensive (76.11%) with deviation +36.11, application/problem solving (1.83%) and cognitive abilities; analytical, creative and evaluative thinking (22.02%); higher order total 23.85% with deviation -36.15<br>The implications of the findings to quality of students learning were discussed. Appropriate recommendations that could lead to improvement of the content validity of the examinations questions, increasing proportion of problem solving/application and broad range of higher level analytical, creative and evaluative thinking questions were made. It was concluded that the examination question papers could be considered suitable assessment tool that satisfy content validity but low towards the attainment of cognitive objectives of biology of the undergraduate programme. The overall finding calls for further improvement in the qualities of the examination questions.</p> MUSTAPHA Mohammed Tajordeen Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 64 64 Praxis of Assessment for Learning in Ethiopian Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Dire Dawa University https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/296 <p>Improving the quality of teaching and learning is an ultimate goal of continuous assessment (CA). This study attested that the perceived opportunities of continuous assessment for quality teaching and learning in Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia. To this study purpose survey research design was employed. A sample of 73 instructors and 289 students were involved in this study. The data collected through five-point Likert’s scale questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS 20 and one-sample t-test was used as data analysis method. The reliability of instruments was computed using Cronbach alpha and therefore, all instruments had presumably acceptable liability coefficients. The study found that the instructors and students have acknowledged the opportunities of CA to improve the quality of teaching and learning in HEIs. If CA is to fit for purpose the need to re-balance assessment for grading (summative assessment) and assessment for learning (formative assessment) and to design competency-based assessment rubric was recommended.</p> Sintayehu Belay1, Ashenafi Tesfaye2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 65 65 Early reading skills in English as a foreign language via ICT in Vietnam: Early childhood student teacher’s perceptions https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/295 <p>Information and communication technology (ICT) is an effective tool which can support young children’s reading skills in English as a foreign language (EFL), while teachers’ perceptions influence their classroom practices; however, there is limited empirical evidence on students’ perceptions on the use of ICT to enhance early reading skills in EFL. This study investigated early childhood student teachers’ perceptions regarding children’s reading skills in EFL via ICT, in Vietnam. A questionnaire was administered to 100 students. Students expressed positive perceptions indicating their willingness-intention to use ICT in teaching reading in EFL to young children. The skills and strategies most reported were that they will use computers high percentage of agreement in their classrooms for the extension of children’s vocabulary and the motivation of children to read and to like reading. Students perceived as major barriers the technical support and the availability of resources. The greater the year of study, the more positive were their perceptions. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.</p> Truong Thi Hong Thuy Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 68 68 The effectiveness of a proposed training program in the development of the linguistic outcome of students of mental retardation in the first grades of the program of intellectual education in the city of Arar https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/294 <p>The aim of the current study was to develop the linguistic outcomes of people with a simple mental retardation (55 – 70) degree. The existence of a mentally retarded child is a problem facing the family as well as the society due to the difficulty of dealing with this child with limited abilities. The current study is of practical importance in the development of the linguistic outcome of mentally retarded children especially in the class in which the study deals and which need programs to qualify them and enrich their language. The proportion of mentally retarded in Saudi Arabia is about 3%. Use the researcher’s experimental approach to consider the relevance of this research following the experimental design and Study Tools Student data form Testing the drawing of the man to Godfn – Harris The validity of the test was verified and validated the test of the linguistic crop preparation Dalia Mostafa, Before and after training on the program until it took its final form and applied the program to the same number (17) students in the city of Arar in the first three grades in the schools of Abdullah bin Abbas and Ibn Jubair primary and indeed was investigated the first purpose of the existence of differences of statistical significance between the performance of mentally retarded students before training on the program The results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences between mentally retarded people with mental disabilities and those who were mentally retarded in the linguistic yield test in response to this program according to the results of the test.</p> Fras Mohamad AL-madne and Ihab Saad Abdulaziz EL-Nabarawy Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 66 66 Teacher Variable and Academic Performance of Learners in Public Elementary Schools https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/293 <p>Researchers agree that teachers are one of the most important school-based resources in determining students’ future academic success and lifetime outcomes, yet have simultaneously had difficulties in defining what teacher characteristics make for an effective teacher. This paper reviews the large body of literature on measures of teacher effectiveness, underscoring the diversity of methods by which the general construct of “teacher quality” has been explored, including experience, professional knowledge, and opportunity to learn. Each of these concepts comprises a number of different dimensions and methods of operationalizing. Despite a voluminous research literature on the question of teacher quality, evidence for the impact of teacher characteristics (experience and professional knowledge) on student outcomes remains quite limited. There is a smaller, but more robust set of findings for the effect of teacher support on opportunity to learn. There are measures which may be associated with higher student achievement: teacher experience, teacher professional knowledge, and teacher provision of opportunity to learn.</p> Ronnie V. Rivera Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 67 67 Teachers’ Perception and Implementation of Constructivist Learning https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/292 <p>A special attention has been given to education system in Ethiopia especially in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design, Bahir Dar University after Educational Sector Development Program (ESDP I, 2003) was developed and implemented. Initially, before ESDP I, the ways of teaching and learning were mainly based on behaviorist approaches. This behaviorist approach to learning and teaching is gradually changed to cognitive and constructivist approaches which are mostly used in advanced education systems. These approaches to learning and teaching are mainly focused on learners themselves. Therefore, student-centered and active learning became the slogans in education system in Ethiopia. This study investigates the teachers’ perception and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods in Ethiopia specifically in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion design Technology, Bahia Dar University. It is vast to investigate each and every aspect of constructivist learning. So, the researcher selected to investigate the mostly used methods (question-answer, individual and group-work) considering constructivism in the Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Design Technology (EiTEX). The mentioned methods are investigated in the light of constructivism. The researcher investigated the methods considering four criteria of constructivist method given by Navistar et.al, (2009). The criteria are: assessing student’s prior knowledge, differentiating what is already known and what should be learnt, changing students pre-concept in the context of new knowledge and reflection on learning. To examine teachers’ use and implementation of constructivist learning and teaching methods, the questionnaire was employed. The findings showed that around half of the teachers have positively perceived and implemented the mentioned methods in line with constructivism, while remaining teachers still implement these methods as a traditional way of teaching. Moreover, teachers seem to be more constructivists in perception and applying individual work method as compared to group-work activities. In some cases, teachers who participated in pedagogical workshops answered questionnaire more in line with constructivism as compare to the teachers who did not participate in pedagogical workshops in the past.</p> Lantbeye Wudeneh Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 68 68 Article Critique: “The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Job Satisfaction” https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/291 <p>This paper provides a critical review of the article published under the title of “The relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction”. The reviewed article intended to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of government secondary school principals and teachers’ job satisfaction. Though not mentioned in the reviewed article, a descriptive survey research design was employed to attain its objective. The transformational leadership questionnaire and the teachers’ job satisfaction questionnaire were employed as instruments of data collection. Therefore, the reviewer followed theoretical, epistemological and statistical assumptions of quantitative research while critically review the article. Accordingly, despite some flaws existed in the study that might lessen its empirical power and reputation, the study was worthwhile in examining the transformational theoretical leadership paradigm in the Ethiopian context. It was suggested that audiences need to consider its shortfalls while using the study findings and future studies need to consider such inaccuracies.</p> Eshetu Kibret Emiru Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 69 69 Assessment of Students’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of University of Gondar https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/290 <p>Universities in the modern world are expected to seek and cultivate new knowledge, provide the right kind of leadership and strive to promote equality and social justice. The general objective of the analysis is to investigate the satisfaction level of undergraduate level students enrolled in regular program of University of Gondar and there by understand Gondar University’s level of service quality perceived by the students. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on students of the university selected using stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was anchored on the model developed by Parasuraman et al. (1988) known as SERVQUAL. Results revealed that the satisfaction level of students in the overall service of the university is 65.4%. Additionally there is significant variation in students’ satisfaction across sex regarding student-instructor interaction, administrative student support service and facility supervision whereas no significant variation was seen regarding satisfaction due to undergraduate and post-graduate programs. Therefore it could be possible to conclude that majority of the students are satisfied with the service that the university offers. However it was also found that the number of the dissatisfied group was not insignificant and therefore more effort should be made to make the satisfaction level of the students much better than the current level.</p> Desalegn Ejigu Tefera Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 70 70 A Brochure Describing the Drama of Rumelian Turks: Bulgaristan’daki Osmanl?lar?n Âh ü Figân? https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/289 <p>As of the end of the 18th century and parallel to the Ottoman Empire’s decline, the Rumelian Turks who had inhabited Balkan lands for centuries began to suffer persecution at the hands of Balkan Christians and the unrest they created. While paving the way for Bulgarian and Russian aggression towards Balkan Turks, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 also triggered the initial migrations towards Istanbul and Anatolia. As stated in Nam?k Kemal’s letters, Balkan Christians were further agitated against Turks, and separatist activity increased. The Balkan War of 1912-1913 and the purge of Balkan Turks and Muslims carried out by Bulgarian and Greek guerillas in this war have been recorded in domestic and foreign sources. Further evidence that such practices preceded the Balkan Wars is the 14-page brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanl?lar?n Âh ü Figan?, published in 1906. This brochure describes the various acts of aggression carried out towards the Turks in Bulgaria. Attacks against Turkish writers and the Balkan newspaper that was published in Turkish and defended the rights of Muslim Turks are also touched upon. This study will introduce the brochure titled Bulgaristan’daki Osmanl?lar?n Âh ü Figan?, which we will evaluate within the scope of a cautionary/propagandistic/informative work.</p> Emin Onuş Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 71 71 10.28933/ajerr-2020-02-1205 The Need for Pre-retirement Vocational Education Training for Workers in Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State, Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/288 <p>This study examined the need for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population of the study was 9,523, made up of academic and non-academic members of staff in the four public tertiary institutions in the state. Five per cent (5%) of the total population was used as the sample for the study using proportionate sampling technique. Thus, the sample for the study was 476 members of staff. A set of questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Pre-retirement Education Training for Tertiary Institution Workers in Ekiti State (QPETTIW) was administered on the respondents. All the administered questionnaires were returned, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the four research questions. The finding revealed that there were economic, social and psychological needs for pre-retirement vocational education training for workers in public tertiary institutions in Ekiti State. Thus, it was recommended that institutional authorities should incorporate pre-retirement vocational training/education into their staff development programme, among others.</p> Dr. B. G. Agboola1, Dr. M.A. Aina2, Dr. I. P. Ogundola3, Dr. C. J. Ayodele4 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 72 72 10.28933/ajerr-2020-04-2205 Curriculum Content, Ownership Of Universities, Work Experience And Acquisition Of Employability Skills Among Business Education Graduates Of Universities In Cross River State, Nigeria https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/287 <p>This paper x-rayed curriculum content, ownership of universities, work experience and acquisition of employability skills among business education graduates of universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two formulated research hypotheses guided this study. Literature was reviewed in line with the variables under study. The research design adopted was survey. The population for the study was 987 business education graduates between 2007/2008 and 2014/2015 academic sessions from the University of Calabar (UNICAL) and Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH). The sample of the study was 200 business education graduates drawn purposively using accidental and snowballing sampling techniques. A validated researcher- made four point scale questionnaire titled ‘Curriculum Content, ownership of universities, work experience and Acquisition of Employability Skills Questionnaire (CCOUWEESQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by four research experts. A reliability estimate of .70 to .82 was achieved for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient after a pilot test. The data obtained from the field was converted into values and analyzed using independent t-test statistical technique. All hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. Findings revealed among others that graduates of federal university exposed to business education curriculum content are significantly different from their state university counterparts in their acquisition of employability skills. Based on this, it was recommended that government should accord equal recognition, support and provision (in terms of funding, capacity building and infrastructural spread) to both federal and state universities in a way that obvious preference for one category over the other is not perceived. Doing so may erode the dichotomized feelings of being either in a federal or state university from the minds of the students, and rather fix their focus on quality learning that results in the acquisition of employability skills.</p> David Asuquo Edet Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 73 73 10.28933/ajerr-2020-05-1105 Improving Learning Effectiveness- Some Aspects Shouldn’t Be Ignored in Mathematics Teaching https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/286 <p>There are abundant educational resources in the USA, but the performance of math education in primary and secondary schools is not so well, and has lagged behind some Asian countries including developing countries. Among many reasons, the crucial reasons are how teachers teach, how students learn, and the level of school teaching management. This paper focuses on how teachers teach in five aspects, particularly emphasizes on how to improve students’ retention and understanding of knowledge, and to enhance learning and thinking abilities. It points out that teachers should constantly remind students to maintain basic facts, create assignments for students by combining regular methods with the strategies of interleaved and spaced practice, build connections among knowledge, pay attention to improve students’ ability of problem-solving, and use some complementary approaches to generate students’ interest, participation, memory and concentration in math. And also it mentions that self-discipline, persistence and confidence are significant in prompting learning efficiency. In addition, some suggestions are put forward for school education management in supporting teaching and learning.</p> Yuqing Yan Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 74 74 10.28933/ajerr-2020-07-1505 The Use of ICT Resources for Teaching Social Studies: Does the Availability of ICT Resources Matter? https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/285 <p>The paper explored the availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources and the extent to which these resources influence the use of ICT in teaching Social Studies. The study setting was in the Awutu Senya district of Ghana. A descriptive survey design and quantitative approach were adopted for the study. From a target population of fifty-seven (57), 46 were sampled from which 39 participated in the survey. Means and standard regression were employed for the investigation. The testing of hypothesis was made possible through the use of structured equation modelling. The study concluded that ICT resources were inadequate for teaching Social Studies and that the use of ICT resources in teaching Social Studies in the district was low. The reason was evident based on the low level of ICT resources in the district. The study also concluded that there was a positive significant relationship between availability of ICT resources and its use in the teaching of Social Studies.</p> Valentina Arkorful1, Kwaku Anhwere Barfi1, Frank Afful Enchill2 Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 75 75 10.28933/ajerr-2020-07-2105 Integration through friendships in school classes – A study of pupils with a migrant background in school friendship networks at primary and secondary schools in Germany https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/284 <p>This paper deals with the integration of migrant children in informal communication networks in primary and secondary schools in Germany. The basic assumption is that these networks can serve as an indicator for the networking and embedding that take place within the class community and therefore can be used to investigate the integration of pupils with a migrant background. The initial results of our network analytical study reveal that pupils with a migrant background are well integrated into class networks. The study discloses that the migrant background does not serve as a conclusive characteristic of the pattern of class networks. The pupils are more or less networked with each other regardless of their migrant background, though it did emerge that children and adolescents born abroad, in particular, are far more likely to have outgoing relationships that remain unreciprocated. Remarkable is, that results from primary school correspond with data from secondary school.</p> Miriam Kuckuck, Claudia Henrichwark Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 76 76 10.28933/ajerr-2020-07-0605 The Influence of Teacher-students’ Interaction on Motivation to Learn Mathematics Among High School Students in Laikipia County, Kenya https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/282 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher-students’ interaction on motivation to learn mathematics among high school students. The study was guided by Keller ARCS model of motivation. Descriptive research design was employed in the study. The target population was all 8357 Form Four students from 113 public high schools in Laikipia County. Simple random sampling was used to select sample schools, sample classes and respondents. The sample consisted of 392 mathematics students who participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used in data collection. Cronbach’s alpha was used in estimating the reliability coefficients of research instruments which were acceptable and above 0.7. Data was analyzed using simple regression analysis.The finding showed that teacher-students’ interaction has a significant influence on motivation to learn mathematics. The study concludes that in order to improve effectiveness of teaching and learning, teachers need to use the relevant classroom interaction practices wisely so as to guide and monitor students in the learning process for better motivation so as to enhance acquisition of knowledge.</p> Mbuthia Ngunjiri Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 5 78 78 10.28933/ajerr-2020-08-1505 Departmentalization in Elementary Schools: Contradictions Teachers Confront https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/281 <p>This paper presents analyses of observational and interview data gathered in a study of exemplary fourth-grade teachers from five states. The central issue explored is the relative merits of self-contained and departmentalized models of instruction. We found no achievement differences in the classrooms by organizational pattern, but differences in the instruction offered in these two models were identified, and mixed views of the relative advantages of either organization plan were expressed by the participants. A key tension was whether these organizational plans are intended to primarily benefit teachers or students. However, the complexities of the cost/benefit concerns are the findings that this study highlights.</p> Richard L. Allington Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 5 77 77 10.28933/ajerr-2020-09-1205 Reasons Early Career Black Special Education Teachers Quit Their Positions https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/280 <p>Special education policymakers and practitioners are concerned about attrition among teachers, especially those who leave early in their careers and teachers of color. To increase knowledge about attrition, I examined demographic and interview data from 10 Black teachers who quit their positions before they completed their probationary periods (1-3 years). Guided by Cox’s (1994) cultural diversity in organization model designed to capture the complex nature of diversity in organizations, I used phenomenological research methods to better understand the teachers’ experiences surrounding the decision to quit. The qualitative analyses revealed four themes: (a) inadequate mentoring, (b) role abuse, (c) cultural insensitivity, and (d) inadequate resources. I conclude with suggestions for education policies and practices at the local and federal level that special educators can employ to address these issues. This paper highlights issues of attrition within a subgroup of educators (Black special educators) that are underrepresented in the research literature.</p> LaRon A. Scott Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 5 79 79 10.28933/ajerr-2020-11-2305 Adult Learning Theory: Reflections on the role of mentoring as a key to success in advanced degree programs https://escipub.org/index.php/AJERR/article/view/279 <p>Vital to completing advanced educational and training programs beyond the undergraduate degree level is realizing specific dispositions and traits. In this paper, the role of mentoring as a critical contributing factor to student success is examined through critical reflection as a form of qualitative inquiry. Traditionally utilized in professional settings to improve practice, critical reflection provided an emergent methodological approach for close examination of personal experiences with mentoring during the learning process in pursuit and subsequent completion of a professional degree (Fook, 2013). This in-depth examination of personal experience derived lessons learned from individuals that successfully navigated the rigor of advanced educational programs to expose mentoring’s role as the key to success.</p> Kent L. Willis Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-01 2021-01-01 5 80 80 10.28933/ajerr-2020-11-2505