American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews 2021-01-29T05:21:19+00:00 American Journal of Psychiatric Research and Reviews Open Journal Systems <p>ISSN:2637-479X<br />DOI:10.28933/AJPRR</p> COVID-19 Lockdown Fatigue 2021-01-29T05:21:19+00:00 Tiffany Field1,2, Shantay Mines2, Samantha Poling2, Miguel Diego1, Debra Bendell2, and Connie Veazey2 <p>In this COVID-19 lockdown Survey Monkey study, as many as 75% of 260 respondents reported feeling fatigued. Correlation analyses suggested that feeling fatigued was significantly correlated with demographic variables and virtually every item on every scale of the survey. The demographic correlations suggested that fatigue occurred more frequently in younger participants, in males, and in those not working from home during the lockdown. The significant correlations for the scales suggested that those feeling fatigued engaged in fewer health activities including exercise and self-care; they spent more time on social media including gaming and Facebook; they engaged in less cooking and creative projects; they scored higher on the Stress Scale including worrying more about the virus and their finances; they reported feeling more isolated, lonely, bored and touch deprived; they did more snacking and napping and expressed more “cabin fever”; they had lower scores on connecting and activities at home; and they had higher scores on anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and PTSD scales. A regression analysis suggested that 51% of the variance in the fatigue scores was explained by the depression (37% variance), sleep disturbances (12%) and anxiety (1%) scores. These results are limited by their being self-reported data from a non-representative, cross-sectional sample. Nonetheless, they highlight the negative effects of feeling fatigued during a COVID-19 lockdown.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in Psychiatric Outpatient Visits in Abu Dhabi – A Retrospective Study 2021-01-29T04:56:29+00:00 Aisha Al Dhufairi, Eman Al Houti, Sumaya Al Marzouqi, Alaa Al Nuaimi, Alya Al-Midfa, Amani Hassan <p>Introduction: Coronavirus pandemics has affected mental health services around the globe. A marked reduction in psychiatric admission and emergency visits were reported recently. With regards to outpatient services, there was an adoption of tele-psychiatry in mental health facilities in many countries.</p> <p>Objectives: To examine the impact of COVID-19 pandemics on the psychiatric outpatient visits in the largest Psychiatric Hospital in Abu Dhabi, UAE, during the month of April 2020.</p> <p>Methodology: A descriptive retrospective study of medical records of all patients attended the general adult psychiatry clinic in the month of April 2020.</p> <p>Results: 1,050 patients were included in the analysis. The sample consists of 55.9% males. The mean age was 40.7 years. The predominant ethnicity was Arab (88.3%). The most prevalent diagnosis was depressive disorder 32.7%. Only 1.6 % patients attended the clinic as new appointments. Tele-assessment was conducted in 64% (N=672) visits. 9.3 % reported to be in relapse during April. Patient with schizophrenia showed the lowest relapse rate 5.7%. Only 8.5% had taken PCR COVID test, with two patients tested positive.</p> <p>Conclusion: The great shift to tele-assessments and the service of medications home delivery were the main reason for maintaining the service in the psychiatric outpatient settings.</p> 2021-01-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Social Disapproval as a Factor of Vulnerability to Mental Illness in Sexual and Gender Minorities 2021-01-17T04:27:32+00:00 Leilane Camila Ferreira de Lima Francisco1*, Alice Correia Barros1, Izabelly Carollynny Maciel Nunes2, Jéssica Diodino da Silva Santos2, Jaqueline Michelle da Conceição Alexandre2, Verônica de Medeiros Alves3 <p>Introduction: The population of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual, Transvestite and Transsexual is the target of social failure (Homophobias, Lesbophobia, transphobia), which contributes to social exclusion and with great association with vulnerability to their health and suffering.</p> <p>Objective: To identify the prevalence of social failure as a factor of vulnerability to mental illness in sexual and gender minorities.</p> <p>Methodology: This is a descriptive, transversal and quantitative study. Data collection took place between December 2018 and June 2019. The place where the research occurred was the Federal University of Alagoas. The instruments used were the identification questionnaire and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Students belonging to sexual and gender minorities who studied at the Federal University of Alagoas, aged 18 years and over, were included. Those who gave up graduation during data collection were excluded. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas.</p> <p>Results: 141 students belonging to sex and gender minorities were interviewed, 64 (45.4%) female and 77 (54.6%) male sex. Regarding sexual orientation, 83 (58.9%) were homosexuals, 50 (35.5%) were bisexual and 8 (5.8%) pansexuals. In relation to gender identity, 135 (95.7%) were cisgender, 2 (1.4%) were transgendered and 4 (2.8%) non-binary. 139 (98.6%) Individuals had already revealed their sexual orientation to someone. Of these, 112 (79.4%) already suffered social failure, being 74 (52.5%) from the family, 56 (39.7%) from unknown persons, 21 (14.9%) from friends, 12 (8.5%) from college colleagues and 10 (7.1%) from co-workers. According to MINI, 134 (95%) who had some kind of mental disorder, 89 (63.1%) presented generalized anxiety disorder. In addition, of the total number of respondents, 108 (76.6%) had psychiatric comorbidities.</p> <p>Conclusions: The research data identified that sexual and gender minorities are vulnerable to mental illness, highlighting generalized anxiety disorder, reflecting all social and family pressures that these individuals suffer to adapt to gender standards and norms, in addition to the whole context of coping with life that affects negative consequences for the mind and body. It is necessary to create care strategies that promote the well-being and improvement of the mental health of this population.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Incidence of Schizophrenia in the Population of Pernambuco: an Analysis From National Health Indicators 2021-01-17T04:24:38+00:00 William Barros Agrelli Girão¹*; Lívia Lócio Rosado de Oliveira2; Eduardo Tomilheiro de Farias3; Mateus Cotias Filizola4; Wirley Matias Alves Martins Duarte5; Edmundo de Oliveira Gaudêncio6 <p>Introduction: Schizophrenia is idiopathic chronic psychosis characterized by distortions of thought, perception, inadequacy and affective dullness. The main risk factors are connected by genetic, neurobiological and psychosocial functions. In Brazil, it is estimated that over 2.5 million people are carriers of the disease, alarming given the social damage that the disease can bring.</p> <p>Objective: To analyze the prevalence data in new cases of schizophrenia from 2014 to 2018 by sample of municipalities in the state of Pernambuco with more than 100 new cases in the period.</p> <p>Methodology: It is a study in secondary databases, conducted from the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables.</p> <p>Results: There was a 25% reduction in new cases in 2018 compared to 2014. The municipality of Garanhuns had the largest absolute and relative reduction of new cases in the period, from 467 to 6.. The cities of Caruaru, Serra talhada and Igarassu also had a reduction in the number of cases. In contrast, in the municipality of Araripina there was an increase in the number of cases in the period. In the municipality of Recife there was the highest incidence among the municipalities, with 7,209 hospitalizations, 66% of the total cases in the state.</p> <p>Discussion: With the exception of the municipality of Araripina, it is generally observed that there were significant reductions in the number of new cases when evaluating the totality of the municipalities of Pernambuco. This may be associated with the expansion of preventive public health education policies aimed at raising awareness of the population about the disease, improving the effectiveness of treatment over the years and the assistance of multiprofessional health teams in psychosocial care centers, with a view to reintegration of these patients in the social context and reduction of public expenses related to hospitalizations.</p> <p>Conclusion: Data analysis showed the effectiveness of multiprofessional programs and public policies related to schizophrenia in Pernambuco. The decreasing number of new cases over the years is evident and reflects greater state assistance with the population’s mental health.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Incidence of Mood Disorder in Recife Population: an Analysis From National Health Indicators 2021-01-17T04:21:33+00:00 Mateus Cotias Filizola¹*; Eduardo Tomilheiro de Farias2; Wirley Matias Alves Martins Duarte3; William Barros Agrelli Girão4; Lívia Lócio Rosado de Oliveira 5; Edmundo de Oliveira Gaudêncio6 <p>Introduction: Mood Disorders are characterized by changes in affective life, towards depression (with or without associated anxiety) or mania. These are usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity. Most of these disorders tend to be recurrent, causing severe damage to the life of the patient and those around him, especially the family.</p> <p>Objective: To describe the prevalence data in new cases of mood disorders between 2014 and 2018, by sample of type of care, gender and age group in the city of Recife.</p> <p>Methodology: This is a study in secondary databases through the Basic Data indicators of Brazil, an integral tool of the health information system, using quantitative analysis of variables.</p> <p>Results: We analyzed the data regarding hospitalizations and concluded that Recife represented 76.8% of hospitalizations performed in Pernambuco, and 81% of cases represented urgent hospitalization. The age group most frequently led to hospitalization was between 30 and 39 years old (25.5%), followed by 40 to 49 years old (24.7%) and 50 to 59 years old (20.7%). Together, ages 10 to 14 and from 80 onwards accounted for only 0.066% of all cases. The brown color presented 71.9% of the hospitalizations and the white presented 21.6% of the cases. Regarding the prevalence between genders, 64.8% of hospitalizations corresponded to females. The total amount spent by public coffers in 2018 was 12.9% higher than 2017, but 15.3% lower than the average of the period analyzed. It is also noteworthy that the Ulysses Pernambucano Psychiatric Hospital received 77.3% of the notified hospitalizations and the average stay for 2018 was the lowest in the historical series (17.6), 28.1% lower than the average of the analyzed period (24.5).</p> <p>Discussion: In general, it was observed that the municipality of Recife, and especially the Ullysses Pernambucano Psychiatric Hospital, covers the vast majority of hospitalizations for mood disorders. Being a woman and being in the economically active age group were identified as important risk factors. In addition, the proportion of urgent care indicates the severity of the problem.</p> <p>Conclusion: Analyzes of these data show the need for the implementation of health prevention and promotion policies in the context of mood disorder, focusing on the economically active age group and female gender, as well as a greater need to internalize the means of health promotion. health available to the population, since not all patients have access to large centers, making it impossible to properly treat the disorders studied..</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychiatry and Diet 2021-01-17T04:19:06+00:00 Balaji Deekshitulu P V <p>The review article explains that the Food habits are uses self-treatment of different psychiatric disorders. It is reported that Diet are used in treating a broad range of mental health disorders including anxiety, stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive, affective, bipolar maniac-depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders etc…</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Herbal treatment in Mental health 2021-01-17T04:16:55+00:00 Balaji Deekshitulu P V <p>The review article explains that the herbal remedies are uses self-treatment of different psychiatric disorders. It is reported that herbal medicines are used in treating a broad range of psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive, affective, bipolar maniac-depressive, psychotic, phobic and somatoform disorders etc…</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychiatric Pharmacy: New role of Pharmacists in Mental Health 2021-01-17T04:15:13+00:00 Abdul Kader Mohiuddin <p>Psychiatric disorders are one of the major causes of global burden of diseases. Stigma remains a major impediment in the delivery of mental healthcare. It has been found across various studies that attitudes of doctors of other specialties and other healthcare professionals also contribute to stigma due to their lack of knowledge and awareness about psychiatry and mental health problems. The number of mental health professionals remains abysmally low. Community pharmacists are accessible, knowledgeable, and capable of providing mental health promotion and care in communities. This may not be a role that is recognized by the public, and men in particular. However, psychotherapy paired with medication is the most effective way to promote recovery. Examples include: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, etc. Pharmacists can play a key role by providing mental health medication management support to improve access and address patients’ mental health needs.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sadipathy – Conceptualization and Elucidation 2021-01-17T04:12:27+00:00 Raqota Berger <p>Sadipathy is a unique and relevant construct that merits full scholarly consideration and scientific investigation. Sadipathy has herein been conceptualized as a psychological and behavioral pathology directly cognate with extremely violent and sadistic actions. The sadipath is an individual that takes pleasure in victimizing others, inflicting serious pain and injury on others, and often even committing murder. Sadipathic individuals derive emotional, psychological, and/or sexual delectation in repeatedly inflicting suffering on others. Sadipathy is particularly associated with certain types of the most extreme offenders, such as serial killers and violent sexual offenders. Sadipathy is an apropos phenomenon to various academic and applied fields, such as psychology, psychiatry, criminology, sociology, criminal justice, law, and corrections. In the field of psychology, sadipathy would be particularly germane to the concentrations of criminal psychology, clinical psychology, and forensic psychology.</p> 2019-07-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REPERCUSSIONS OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY CONTEXT 2021-01-17T04:10:12+00:00 Kimberly Mayara Gouveia Bezerra¹*; Ana Carolina de Carvalho Leandro²; Maria Gabryelle Jatobá Pereira de Brito³; Scarlletie Rodrigues Perreli Batista de Oliveira4; Thassia Thame de Moura Silva5; Iracema da Silva Frazão6 <p>Introduction: With the change in the care environment, the family came to be seen as an ally in treating the person with mental disorders, beginning to experience the home, as a new environment full of emotions, responsibilities and changes. Thus, it is important to know by health professionals of the repercussions that mental disorders cause in the family, so that it enables planning focused on holistic action, centered on the resolution of problems that lead to the illness of the family environment. Objective: to identify the repercussions of mental disorders in the family context.</p> <p>Methodology: Literature review in the databases SCOPUS, CINAHL, LILACS, CUIDEN and SCIELO. The selected articles were classified as to the level of evidence and data analysis was constructed in Microsoft Excel containing the main information of the articles.</p> <p>Results:1,400 articles were found, of which 234 articles were selected to read the abstracts, 41 included the theme. Then, 27 articles were selected to answer the guiding question. However, after the application of methodological criteria, an article was excluded, totaling a final sample of 26 articles.</p> <p>Conclusion: the experience of having a family member with mental disorders was seen, as a difficult and overloading experience, but this coexistence has made it possible to search for the breakdown of paradigm of mental illness, the approximation of the family with treatment and health services, in addition to contributing to the reintegration of it into society.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 HOSPITAL HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR MENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS IN MACEIÓ IN THE YEARS 2013 TO 2018 2021-01-17T04:07:46+00:00 Ingrid Isabelle Silva Lins¹*, Luana Alves de Freitas¹, João Lourenço dos Santos Neto¹, Martha Christina Ribeiro Santos¹, Angella Maria Oliveira Domingos¹, Tânia Maria Alves Bento¹. <p>Introduction: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2011, the prevalence of mental disorders in the world population is 10%, exceeding 25% to be considered during the course of life. Health information has important roles in health policies, enabling planning, prevention, promotion and recovery actions, as it forms a system for the acquisition, organization and analysis of data to define health problems and risks and to evaluate efficacy. , efficiency and influence that the services provided exert on the health of the population³.</p> <p>Objective: To characterize the epidemiological profile of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders in the city of Maceió from 2014 to 2018.</p> <p>Methodology: This is a descriptive quantitative study based on data analysis of the Hospital Internment System (SIH). accessed by DATASUS, having the following variables: ICD 10 (Mental and Behavioral Disorders), ICD 10 List (Mental Disorders due to the use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, year (2014-2018), age group (15 – 59 years ), gender (male and female) in the city of Maceió-Alagoas.</p> <p>Results and discussion: From the data analyzed, Maceió totaled 4,778 thousand (47.87%) of the cases of hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders between the years 2013 to 2018, 2013 with 952 billion (9.52%), 2014 with 1.025 thousand cases (10.25%), 2015 with 635 thousand cases (6.35%), 2016 with 717 thousand cases (7.17%), 2017 with 679 thousand cases (6.79%) and 2018 with 765 thousand cases (7.65%) c the predominance of cases in 2014 with approximately 10% of cases. Age groups totaled 4,787 corresponding to 47.87% of the cases, being 15-19 years with 432 (4.32%), 20-29 years with 1.093 (10.93%), 30-39 years with 1.091 (10.91 %), 40-49 years with 1,111 (11.13%) and 50-59 years with 707 (7.07%), with predominance of cases between 40-49 years and about 11% of cases. The male gender totaled 4,111 (41.11%) in relation to the female gender with 676 (6.76%) hospitalization cases, being the male with more predominance of cases. Since hospitalizations have been the object of investigation in several studies, as it is an important source of data on hospitalized morbidities, in addition to the fact that they are used by most of the human resources, materials and technology in the health sector².</p> <p>Conclusion: How hospitalizations for mental and behavioral disorders have a significant and relevant impact on public health, considering the increase in these disorders worldwide. Thus, public health policies have been strategies to reduce these data, enabling patients’ quality of life, as well as hospitalizations.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Psychriatry in Ayurveda 2021-01-17T04:05:35+00:00 Balaji Deekshitulu P V <p>Synthetic drugs for human brain disorders are expensive symptomatic long treatments, sometimes showing serious and unavoidable side effects with poor patient compliance. Therefore, the herbal and Ayurvedic treatments are preferred over synthetic drugs for a range of human brain disorders including, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, epilepsy, schizophrenia, anxiety, etc. Ayurvedic system of medicine has traditionally been used in several neurological conditions. The accessibility, negligible incidence of side effects and cost effectiveness of plant products offer considerable advantages. These days much attention is drawn towards the established traditional systems of herbal remedies for many brain disorders, generating positive hopes for the patients. The Ayurvedic prescriptions which contain either a single identity of plant or a mixture of plant materials have been proven to be very useful against such disorders. The plant materials prescribed for these problems range from herbs to perennial trees with varied plant parts, ranging from whole plant, roots, stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits to seeds. It has been attempted to review the current situation of mental disorder in the society vis-a-vis its effective solution described in the Ayurveda and problem of side effects in synthetic medicines.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 To report the experience of training in suicide prevention for health professionals in Pernambuco 2021-01-17T04:04:00+00:00 Sousa, R.A1, Silva, W.R2; Melo, I.F.O3, Silva, A.C.P.S4, Vasconcelos, S.C5; Silva, T.P.S6 <p>Introduction: Nowadays, mental health work is understood through team work and aimed at the collective with the perspective of articulating and adding knowledge. In this sense, the broadening of the professionals perspective and training is essential to enhance care, especially in the issues of coping with self-inflicted violence, especially the suicidal behavior responsible for the death of approximately 800,000 people per year. Objective: to report the experience of training in the subject of suicide prevention for health professionals in the state of Pernambuco. Methodology: The proposal was developed in September 2017 in the training format, offered by a group of researchers from the Federal University of Pernambuco. The target audience was the professionals who work at the various levels of mental healthcare in the State of Pernambuco. The training was structured in three thematic axes: 1- Basic concepts; 2- Risk factors and profiles; 3- Management and prevention. Results and Discussion: The vast majority of professionals approved the proposal, in its 90,3% format, thematic 95,0% and content 97,0%. In total 99,0% considered the action to be important for their professional training and ensures afety regarding retention and apprehension of the subject, and can contribute more effectively to the issue of suicidal behavior. It can be considered that the experience contributed significantly to teaching and scientific research through the articulation of university researchers and professionals in mental healthcare, being considered as an action of permanent education and training, indispensable tools in the content of public health. Conclusion: It is considered that the action was successful in order to enable the comprehension and broadened view of the professionals of the multi professional team to promote the integral care of the subject who suffers, enabling the listening and support even the engagement in a specialized network.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Role of the Psychologist in Palliative Care in Response to Patients With Cancer 2021-01-17T04:02:20+00:00 1 A. Lima E. S.¹, Lima A. D.² <p>Introduction: The psychologist’s intervention in palliative care has widened glances on the dignity of the patient with chronic-degenerative diseases. In this way we perceive the relevance of the psychologist’s possibilities in acting together with the patient-family-health team. The aim of this study is to discuss the role of the psychologist in the context of palliative care in patients with cancer, relatives and staff. The methodology used was a bibliographic review. About the results found, points to the increasing number of people with chronic-degenerative diseases having cancers as one of the leading causes of death in the world. This fact emerges the need to include palliative care in the ongoing training of psychologists. In oncology, the recurrence of palliative chemotherapy, where patients adhere to relieve symptoms in their final months, promise to increase the life span and may also slow down the pain. But prolonging the life span is always the best option? In this scenario, the hospital psychologist, along with the team and their families, is responsible for promoting respect for the patient’s rights to make their own choices, presenting clear data about the disease and its evolution and respecting its limits of understanding and emotional tolerance. In addition to also acting on the quality of life of patients with end-stage cancer, as a facilitating agent in coping with stressful, sometimes aversive, events related to the treatment process, among them: aggressive pharmacological therapy and its side effects. The psycho oncology concludes that palliativeness deals with the acceptance of the human condition in the face of finitude, presenting to the patient outside the possibilities of healing, to his relatives and friends, the necessary conditions for the understanding of his finitude, since, in this perspective, is a disease to be cured, but the end of the life cycle. Therefore, the study made it possible to offer a humanized service that promotes interlocution between patient / relatives and health staff.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Association Between Cognitive Factors and Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease 2021-01-17T04:00:25+00:00 Araújo M.L.S1, Inácio A.V.T2, Inácio M.L.G.T³, Coriolano M.G.W.S4 <p>Introduction: Parkinson’s disease has a chronic and neurodegenerative evolution. With population aging, its incidence and prevalence increase. Its clinical features consist mainly of tremor, stiffness and bradykinesia; however, it is increasingly evident that non-motor symptoms, even if they are outside the diagnostic criteria, may be more disabling than motor manifestations. Studies indicate that visual hallucinations may be a prodromal symptom for cognitive impairment in these patients. Objective: To verify the association between visual hallucinations as a predictive factor for the development of cognitive alterations in Parkinson’s disease. Methodology: A search was performed on the PubMed and BVS databases, using the descriptors “Hallucinations”, “Cognition” and “Parkinson’s disease”. The inclusion criteria were: articles published between 2013 and 2017, in English and that fit the theme chosen. Review articles and on animals were excluded. Results and Discussion: From the 54 articles located, only 15 were in the focus of this review. Although visual hallucinations occur in about a quarter of patients with Parkinson’s disease, they are not well recognized in medical practice, even though they are associated with the onset of psychosis, motor signals and more severe depression, and are an important risk factor for the development of dementia in Parkinson’s Disease. Therefore, the early recognition of visual hallucinations and cognitive changes in this disease would allow directed intervention in the early stages and a better prognosis. Conclusion: The studies point to the need of the identification of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease who have not been properly recognized. This perception may contribute to an earlier, holistic and integrated care, also considering these non-motor symptoms in the treatment, providing quality of life for patients, their families, caregivers and reducing the need for institutionalization.</p> 2018-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Speech Therapy Intervention in Relation of the Patient With Chronic Non-progressive Encephalopathy – Experience Report 2021-01-17T03:58:34+00:00 Melo A.M.S1, Feitosa A.L.F1, Azevêdo N.C2, Sá M.S.D.C2, Canuto M.S.B3 <p>Introduction: Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy, commonly known as cerebral palsy, is one of the most common childhood disorders, arising in early childhood. It is characterized by being a persistent disorder in several structures and functions (of tonus, posture and movement), causing a series of limitations regarding the accomplishment of functional activities. Objective: To report the experience of the practical activities of the compulsory supervised internship of speech therapy course in relation to the patient with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy. Methodology: During the supervised stage, actions were carried out for speech-language intervention in patients with CNPE, where was carried out anamnesis, evaluation, speech-language therapy, guidelines and, when necessary, the patients were referred to the other specialties according to the needs observed. During the speech-language evaluation process, the analysis of the development of language aspects, communicative skills, evaluation of the functions and structures of the stomatoglossognatic system and auditory perception through musical resources and sound instruments were made. The intervention occurred on a weekly basis, with half an hour of duration, being stimulated the aspects of the language and worked the orofacial myofunctional structures. Results and Discussion: It was possible to observe that all the patients had enough communicative intention, development of language appropriate to the age group, however, they presented alterations in the stomatoglossognatic system with impairment of mobility, sensitivity and tonicity of the phonoarticulatory organs, emphasizing: orofacial hypotonia, with interference of the musculature for the complete absence of lip seal, protrusion and lateralization of the tongue and phonemic articulation. Rehabilitation for speech-language disorders in individuals with Chronic Non-Progressive Encephalopathy will depend on the type and degree of overall motor impairment, comprehension and language aspects of each patient. Conclusion: It is necessary the speech-language and multidisciplinary intervention in an early, effective and humanized way, favoring the development of these skills and seeking to promote a better quality of life for these patients.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 To conduct a literature review on the effects of virtual reality in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease 2021-01-17T03:56:32+00:00 Silva K.M.G¹, Gonçalves C.M², Cabral T.M³, Morais A.T.B4 <p>Introduction: Due to the increased aging, growing chronic and degenerative diseases. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, which is caused by the degeneration of substantia nigra cells. The main signs of PD are tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, idle and commitment in postural control and balance. Being frequent the use of technology applied to rehabilitation, one of them is virtual reality (VR), which stimulates the movement of the whole body by means of computer-based games, in order to recreate and enhance the sense of reality to the player with interactive games. The RV not immersive, the player interacts with the game, but it has the feeling of being in the real world by using, for example, joystick or common screen uses more interfaces for Nitendo Wii or Microsoft KinectTM, to assist in the rehabilitation of elderly people with PD. Objectives: To conduct a literature review on the effects of RV in the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: A literature review was performed from items available in Scielo databases, PubMed, Lilacs, Medline in August 2017, selecting articles published from 2012 to 2017. Results and Discussion: Initially found 85 studies with the theme proposal, among them, 77 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Selecting articles 8, 4 case studies and literature reviews 4. Results report that RV helps increase the speed and movement time, gait, balance, postural control and reduction of falls. Conclusion: RV helps enhance the physiotherapeutic treatment both in motor control, functionality, balance, and cognitive ability on account of the treatment be playful and need concentration, but still needs more scientific studies with methodological qualities to confirm the results of the RV in rehabilitation in Parkinson’s disease.</p> 2018-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Salvador Dali Meets Sigmund Freud: Paranoia, Narcissism, Snails 2021-01-17T03:50:48+00:00 John J. Hartman <p>This paper examines the meeting between the artist Salvador Dalí and Sigmund Freud that took place in London in July of 1938. Freud had just escaped from the Nazi regime in Austria and was about a year away from death. Dalí had been influenced by Freud’s work for many years and had sought to meet his idol on several previous occasions. The meeting, arranged by Freud’s friend, Stefan Zweig, and attended by the poet, Edward James, is noteworthy in that Dalí brought his painting, “Metamorphosis of Narcissus,” a treatise on the subject of paranoia, and sketched Freud’s head conceived as a snail. The paper offers perspectives on each of these events. The meeting is seen in the context of Freud’s artistic sensibility and his relationship to Surrealism. For Dalí the meeting served as a way to break with Surrealism and led to a revised philosophy of art. The paper concludes with the speculation that the meeting was experienced by the artist as an idealizing/envious narcissistic transference with Freud, thus replicating the theme of the painting that the artist had brought with him.</p> 2020-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Education of Healthcare Professionals on an Integrated Care Pathway in order to Standardize Practice and Improve Outcomes for Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disability (IDD) who engage in Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) 2021-01-17T03:48:29+00:00 Regina Gentlesk Green <p>This paper addresses the lack of knowledge and lack of standardization for treating individuals who engage in self-injurious behavior (SIB) to the head. An evidence-based integrated clinical care pathway is described that was created for health care professionals treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) who engage in frequent and/or significant SIB. It is anticipated that this pathway will increase treatment team knowledge of best practices, decrease clinical variation, standardize care, and improve clinical outcomes with this vulnerable population.</p> 2020-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The New Approaches Therapeutics That Complement Medicinal Therapy of Patients in Mental Health: an Analysis 2021-01-17T03:46:40+00:00 Francisco Henrique da Silva1, Matheus Alves Siqueira de Assunção2, Evandro Valentim da Silva2, and Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos2 <p>Mental illnesses represent a challenge for healthcare worldwide. In Brazil, this reality is not different, with the Unified Health System (SUS) providing or improving the therapeutic treatment of patients assisted by public health policies, through the implementation of integrative and complementary practices in mental health patient therapy. Drug therapy associated with the increase in integrative practices contributes to improvements in the patient, in addition to promoting updates to the protocols and clinical guidelines that address pathologies of the mental nature. In this context, this chapter should analyze the main mental disorders, such as drug therapies used to treat these patients, as well as the use of integrative practices that complement the use of medications.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Autistic Espectrum Disorder – a New Perspective About the Early Diagnostic 2021-01-17T03:44:35+00:00 Mihai Sorin Dorobantu <p>The term “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) describes today a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with diverse etiologies. Autism spectrum disorder is obviously a neurodevelopmental disorder that seems to be a big challenge today for both: the family doctor and the pediatrician. The core of this disorder is mainly integrated by the patient’s communication and social interaction difficulties and by the presence of repetitive or restricted behaviors and / or interests. (AUGUSTYN, PATTERSON, TORCHIA, 2019 p. 1)1-10 Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a pervasive and permanent disorder. It has no cure, no especific treatment, and this must be clarified from the begining, however, early intervention can drastically alter prognosis and soften symptoms (SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE PEDIATRIA, 2019) 1-10.<br>To benefit from early intervention, the patient with autistic spectrum disorder needs an early diagnosis. The key to their better social integration is the time.<br>It is obvious that children identified with risk for autism spectrum disorder should be referred to a specialist with the purpose to establishing the diagnosis. However, it is primarily up to the primary-care physician to identify children at risk through developmental follow-up, behavioral follow-up and eventually through a valid screening and clinical judgment. In fact, early, accurate and appropriate diagnosis usually requires a clinician with experience in diagnosis and treatment. However, the contribution of a multiprofessional team to assess key symptoms, functional impairment, severity, and comorbid conditions is very important. The management of this patient should be individualized according to the child’s age and specific needs. The primary care provider can refer the child to local consultants or the public school system for ancillary evaluations (speech language, cognitive and adaptive testing, psychoeducational testing) (AUGUSTYN, PATTERSON, TORCHIA, 2019 p. 2)1-10 The key to our attitude as professionals is continuous follow-up. And it needs to be done together with an expert – or rather a team of professionals who can monitor both the process and the progress.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Healing Relationships: co-therapists animals 2021-01-17T03:41:50+00:00 Daniela Maria Bastos de Souza¹; Mariana Gomes do Rêgo²; Lorena D’Andrade Aires³; Ewerton Henrique Brito Silva Cardoso³; Diego Lucas Couto Paes Barreto de Carvalho³ <p>Anxiety and Depression<br>Throughout history, humans have created various “instruments” for the survival of their species, including a need for socialization. These social relationships do not always occur successfully and when they do, there are behavioral changes, such as anxiety disorder, depression and even risk of suicide (SAVALLI; ADES, 2016; SOUSA; OLIVEIRA; CALOUI, 2018).<br>Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) presents as main resources exacerbated fear or anxiety in social situations. Also called Social Phobia, SAD usually manifests itself before or during moments of interaction, as well as in situations where the individual feels observed or exposed to the approval of others (APA, 2013). This disorder is a consequence of one or several factors, whether psychological, biological or arising from lived situations (GOMES, 2014).<br>Those who suffer from SAD tend to exhibit more reclusive habits, reducing their social circle to only their family members and to avoid situations in which they need to speak or even eat in the public. Physically, anxiety disorder usually manifests as hand tremors, flushing, nausea, frequent urination and/or panic attacks, signs that negatively influence the behavior of the affected individual and may cause a more intense degree of social isolation. Social Phobia physiologically impairs the functionality of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands, producing changes in production and releasing of several important hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. This physiological change implies the maintenance of alertness, increases heart rate, alter body blood flow, and digestive processes and pupil dilation, these signals being the preparation of the body for situations of fight or escape. From the biological point of view, these characteristics are important for the survival of individuals. However, in the anxiety scenario, these effects are constantly manifesting, leading to the predominance arc of deleterious effects on the individual’s life. Early aging and cognitive signs, such as memory problems, difficulty in reasoning and decision making, are characteristics of anxiety (BELLETATO, 2019). Also, people affected by this disorder often perceive the environment around them as threatening and have negative thoughts about themselves and their capabilities (VIANNA; CAMPOS; FERNANDEZ, 2009).</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ANXIETY 2021-01-17T03:39:06+00:00 José Gildo de Lima, Aline Cavalcanti de Lira <p>With the changing age structure of the population, epidemiological shifts are observed. The incidence of infectious diseases has declined over the years and has been replaced by chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and psychological disorders. Anxiety disorders are more common among people suffering from chronic medical disease, and the number of medical illnesses is positively associated with the presence of anxiety (RAMOS; STANLEY, 2018, p.57).<br>Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders that have their basis in one of the most rudimentary and adaptive human functions: the innate stress response (‘fight or flight’’ response) (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p. 104). So, it is possible that during our lifetime we may suffer some kind of anxiety disorder. In fact, the stress response is designed to motivate us to protect ourselves by preparing to cope with a perceived threat. But when this stress or fear is disproportionate to actual threat or danger and significantly interferes with normal daily functioning, the person is said to have an anxiety disorder (ABRAMOWITZ; DEACON, 2010, p.104, OLTHUIS; WATT; BAILE; HAYDEN; STEWART, 2015, p.12). While fear is the emotional response to an imminent threat, characterized by an acute autonomic system activation, anxiety is better described as the “anticipation of a future threat” (DONELLI; ANTONELLIA; BELLINAZZIB; GENSINIC; FIRENZUOLID, 2019, p. 2).<br>Anxiety is a disease which affects a large part of the world population. According to (Kessler et al (2007), approximately one in four individuals are likely to have, or have previously had, an anxiety disorder.</p> 2020-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Speech Language Therapy and Mental Health: analysis of communicative behavior and intervention in individuals with schizophrenia 2021-01-17T03:37:12+00:00 Ariana Elite dos Santos 1, Luiz Jorge Pedrão 2, Maria Edvany de Melo Pereira 3, Flávia Luiza Costa do Rêgo 4 , José Vinicios Leite Santos 5 <p>Speech language intervention in mental health<br>There are still a few literary reports of direct action of Speech Therapy in public care services to individuals diagnosed with mental disorders which is a current challenge for Speech language pathologist. The only mandatory presence of this professional in the minimum team is in Child and Youth Psychosocial Attention Center (PSACc), but not in the Psychosocial Attention Center (PSAC) for example, where the majority of the users are adults (SANTOS et al., 2012).<br>If, on the one hand, mental health outpatient clinics were an important entry point for the speech therapist into the public health system, on the other hand, in front of PSAC implementation, its presence in the teams is not yet consolidated. In 20 years of SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) and under the aegis of the advances of Psychiatric Reform it is also necessary to make consistent the practices into the field of language as a power of psychosocial rehabilitation and inclusion of children, teenagers and adults affected by psychiatric disorders of high complexity (SANTOS et al., 2012).<br>The National Mental Health Policy (NPMH) supported by the law 10.216/2002, has as an object consolidate an open, community-based model of public mental health care. In other words, ensure the free movement of people with mental disorders through services and communities, and provide care based on the resources offered by them. The PSAC, Residential Therapeutic Services (RTS), the Centers of Coexistence and Culture and the services of integral attention (in general hospitals and PSAC) are part of a service network based on this model (BRASIL, 2001).</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 THE ROLE OF ANXIETY ON CHRONIC PAIN AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS 2021-01-17T03:34:57+00:00 Maurício Kosminsky1, Michele Nascimento2, Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal3, Ellen Kosminsky4, Cecília Borba5 <p>How can society live with anxiety and pain? The discussion about anxiety goes through dentistry as it affects the oral condition. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a very prevalent condition in the population, and mental disorders are often associated with disabilities that affect various activities, also being associated with various diseases and syndromes that present chronic pain, such as chronic Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD). Interactions of exposure to adverse psychosocial events and mental disorders can make the etiological diagnosis of chronic pain a major challenge. Chronic pain is an important public health problem, affecting a relevant portion of the population, interfering with psychological status, social activities and work. Therefore attention and care is needed to control anxiety and promote the quality of life of the population.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ABSENTEEISM DUE TO MENTAL DISORDERS IN A MUNICIPALITY IN THE INTERIOR OF ALAGOAS 2021-01-17T03:30:14+00:00 Verônica de Medeiros Alves² *. Francisco, Leilane Camila Ferreira de Lima. <p>Introduction: Work-related diseases cause high absenteeism rates and their occurrence has been increasing gradually and because they cause great impact on the economy of the countries.</p> <p>Objective: To identify the prevalence of absenteeism due to mental disorders in servers in the municipality of Arapiraca-AL, from January to December 2013.</p> <p>Methodology: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. For this, we analyzed all the records used in the situation of work clearance of the municipal servants of Arapiraca in the Medical Board.</p> <p>Results: The study subjects were 816 public servants from the municipality of Arapiraca-AL, away from work from January to December 2013. For data analysis, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-SPSS (version 20) was used. The present study showed that most professionals away from work were female (693 – 84.9%), married (426 – 52.2%), lived in rural areas (116 – 14.2%) and were permanent employees (627 – 76.8%). Education configured the stocking organ most affected by absenteeism at work (474 – 58.1%) represented by the post of teacher (281 – 34.4%). The absence of mental disorders occupied the fourth most frequent cause (151 – 18.5%) among the various reasons for distancing from work and the depressive episode was the mental disorder that stood out in relation to the others (19 – 12.6%).</p> <p>Conclusion: The high rate of absenteeism due to mental disorders evidences the need for a new look at the mental health of workers in order to develop strategies for immediate intervention.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 REPERCUSSIONS OF THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PERSONS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS IN PERFORMANCE OF DAILY LIFE ACTIVITIES 2021-01-17T03:17:03+00:00 Alana Beatriz Félix Ferreira*, José Ramon da Silva Brito <p>Introduction: The term institutionalization comes from Europe, from the middle ages, where people with mental disorders were excluded from the social environment. Thereafter the psychiatric hospitals are developed, whose principles become isolation, repression and total institutionalization. Psychiatric hospitals were then established as a place of psychiatric power and disease manipulation.Thus, in the total institutionalization the subject loses his individuality, being treated only by the disease, removed from his self, resulting in greater difficulty in social reintegration, autonomy and independence of the individual.</p> <p>Objectives: To report on how institutionalization may interfere with the performance of daily living activities (ADLs) of institutionalized users in a psychiatric hospital.</p> <p>Methods: This is a descriptive work of the experience report type, presenting experiences at the Teodora Albuquerque Psychiatric Hospital in Arapiraca / AL, between May 2019 and September 2019, with institutionalized individuals with more than one year of hospitalization.</p> <p>Results: Activities of daily living are basic self-care tasks that can be used and well-being, such as bathing, eating, combing or hair, among others (AOTA, 2015). Within the experiences, there was a progressive difficulty in the functional and conscious performance of ADLs, due to numerous factors, which may be pathological or acquired in institutionalization, especially among males and older age, with prevalence of acquired difficulty. by total institutionalization. In this process, individuals who are hospitalized longer are more susceptible to the gradual loss of their functional independence, both by the polypharmacy highly present in psychiatric hospitals, and by the mode of repression and isolation that leads to the aggravation of mental illness.</p> <p>Conclusion: Given this, it is understood that a psychiatric institutionalization negatively interferes with the performance of users’ ADLs.</p> 2020-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021