Facial Fat Grafting in reconstructive maxillofacial surgery
- Facial fat grafting; Facial augmentation; Adipose tissue; Facial reconstruction; Stem cells; Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering
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Aim: Facial Fat Grafting(FFG) was first described in the early 20th century but for many years remained a relatively underused technique due to the unreliability of long-term volume expansion and retention. FFG was initially used as a technique to improve facial aesthetics. Over the years the technique has evolved into more complex reconstructive and regenerative procedures and new clinical applications.
Methods: In the last two decades the indications of FFG have been extended into cranio-maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. This includes post-traumatic soft tissue defects, aesthetics,congenital and other postsurgical volume deficits.
Results: While several approaches were suggested for fat harvesting and grafting, the results were rather unsatisfactory due to the degeneration of many adipocytes that occurred during these manipulations. The technique of autologous fat transfer has then been perfectioned becoming an augmentation-regenerative process that can be used to treat a wide range of difficult and challenging reconstructive problems. The procedure described herein has been performed in different patients with various pathology sequelae with sactisfactory morpho-aesthetic results and a low complication rate.
Conclusion: FFG can be used in any facial area where is lack,of soft tissue or where there is scarring,producing natural and long-lasting results. Mesenchymal stem cells represent a great tool in regenerative medicine because of their ability to differentiate into a variety of specialized cells. However more definitive studies are still needed in order to answer specific questions regarding the best technique to be used and the role of ADSC’s.Clinical cases with volume paucity or deficiencies are presented with a long-term outcome in augmentation and regeneration.
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