Facial Lipostructure: an Overview
- Facial lipostructure; Coleman technique; lipoaspirate; facial fat grafting; facial augmentation; adipose tissue; stem cells; regeneration; engineering; fat grafting research
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Aim: Facial lipostructure (FLS) is not a new procedure. In the past, many surgeons steered clear of it because the results were poor and unpredictable . In the 80’s however FLS emerged with precise indications, improved techniques, foreseeable and stable results. Its use has become widespread because it produces natural, long-lasting outcomes with minimal donor site morbidity . FLS usually represents the last procedure or retouch in many reconstructive procedures and protocols. Moreover adipose-derived stems cells (ADSCs) represent a promising source of autologous cells for tissue repair and regeneration.
Methods: In the maxillofacial area, FLS is indicated primarily to restore and rejuvenate the zygomas, periorbital region, cheeks, nose, lips, chin, mandible and jawline. Recently, it has been applied to correct localized tissue atrophy, burns, hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, scleroderma, anophthalmic orbit), and loss of substance resulting from trauma, tumor excision, and congenital craniofacial deformity sequelae.
Orthognathic surgery and fat grafting represent a new application and an appropriate indication. It is well known that this surgery moves the skeletal bases (maxilla, mandible, chin) but often this leads to a lack of soft tissue coverage. Some patients, particularly women, complain about this lack of soft tissue volume after bony surgery.
Conclusion: FLS was launched as a means to improve volumes and facial aesthetics. Recently, it has been applied in more complex reconstructive and regenerative procedures. It can especially be used on any facial area lacking soft tissue due to posttraumatic outcomes, post tumor deformities, and as a refinement in for many acquired and congenital maxillofacial deformities. The proposed uses for ADSCs in tissue repair and regeneration are quite impressive. Recent works on ADSCs would suggest that adult cells may prove to be an equally powerful regenerative tool in treating congenital and acquired maxillofacial disorders. More importantly, physicians, researchers and international associations need to work to inform clinicians about what practices are evidence based and to encourage support of additional research. Today tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are a multidisciplinary science that is evolving along with biotechnologic advances.
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