Development of Estimate Formulas for Waist Circumference Using Body Mass Index and Limb Circumferences in Hospitalized Older Adults
- Estimate formula; Waist circumference; Body mass index; Limb circumference; Hospitalized older adults
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Background: Little research has been conducted on the estimate formulas for waist circumference using body mass index and limb circumferences in hospitalized older adults. Thus, we conducted the present study to develop estimate formulas of waist circumference using body mass index and limb circumferences in hospitalized older adults.
Methods: Forty hospitalized older patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. We measured waist circumference, body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference. The estimate formulas for waist circumference were developed using simple and multiple regression analysis.
Results: Simple regression analysis indicated that body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference were independent explanators for waist circumference (p < 0.05 for all). In addition, body mass index, upper arm circumference, and forearm circumference but not thigh circumference and calf circumference were extracted as independent explanators for waist circumference in multiple regression analysis (p < 0.05). We were able to develop the estimate formulas using body mass index, upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, thigh circumference, and calf circumference.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the estimate formulas for waist circumference may provide an opportunity to easily evaluate waist circumference, even in hospitalized older adults with kyphosis posture. However, future studies should be conducted to develop the estimate formulas for waist circumference with a lower error value.
- World Health Organization. The top causes of death. 2018. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death (Accessed 20 November 2020).
- Japanese society for the study of obesity. Guidelines for the management of obesity disease 2016,Life science, 2016, pp 4-8, 71-77 (in japanese).
- Ninomiya T, Kubo M, Doi Y, Yonemoto K, Tanizaki Y et al. Impact of metabolic syndrome on the development of cardiovascular disease in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Stroke, 2007; 38(7): 2063-2069.
- Lu CW, Yang KC, Chang HH, Lee LT, Chen CY et al. Sarcopenic obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. Obes Res Clin Pract, 2013;7(4): e301-307.
- Lee DC, Shook RP, Drenowatz C, Blair SN. Physical activity and sarcopenic obesity: definition, assessment, prevalence and mechanism. Future Sci OA, 2016;2(3): FSO127.
- Sakurai T, Iimuro S, Araki A, Umegaki H, Ohashi Y et al. Age-associated increase in abdominal obesity and insulin resistance, and usefulness of AHA/NHLBI definition of metabolic syndrome for predicting cardiovascular disease in Japanese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gerontology, 2010; 56(2): 141-149.
- Matsumoto K, Miyake S, Yano M, Ueki Y, Miyazaki A et al. Insulin resistance and classic risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients with different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Diabetes Care, 1999; 22(7): 1191-1195.
- Kado DM, Prenovost K, Crandall C. Narrative review: hyperkyphosis in older persons. Ann Intern Med, 2007; 147(5): 330-338.
- Takagi D. Relationships among limb circumferences and appendicular muscle and fat masses using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Int J Phys Ther Rehab, 2018; 4: 148.
- Rolland Y, Lauwers-Cances V, Cournot M, Nourhashémi F, Reynish W et al. Sarcopenia, calf circumference, and physical function of elderly women: a cross-sectional study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003; 51(8): 1120-1124.
- Rolland Y, Czerwinski S, Abellan Van Kan G, Morley JE, Cesari M et al. Sarcopenia: its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives. J Nutr Health Aging,2008; 12(7): 433-450.
- Katzmarzyk PT, Mire E, Bray GA, Greenway FL, Heymsfield SB et al. Anthropometric markers of obesity and mortality in white and African American adults: the pennington center longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013; 21(5): 1070-1075.
- Mason C, Craig CL, Katzmarzyk PT. Influence of central and extremity circumferences on all-cause mortality in men and women. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2008; 16(12): 2690-2695.
- Shi J, Yang Z, Niu Y, Zhang W, Li X et al. Large mid-upper arm circumference is associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly individuals: a community-based study. BMC Endocr Disord, 2020;20(1): 78.
- Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: the barthel Index. Md State Med J, 1965; 14:61-65.
- Nordhamn K, Södergren E, Olsson E, Karlstrom B, Vessby B et al. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in overweight and lean subjects: consequences for correlations between anthropometric and other variables. Int J Obes, 2000; 24(5): 652-657.
- Chen MM, Lear SA, Gao M, Frohlich JJ, Birmingham CL. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of waist circumference and the waist-to-hip ratio. Obes Res, 2001; 9: 651.
- Androutsos O, Anastasiou C, Lambrinou CP, Mavrogianni C, Cardon G et al. Intra- and inter- observer reliability of anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in primary schoolchildren and adults: the Feel4Diabetes-study. BMC Endocr Disord, 2020; 20: 27.
- Bakar Y, Özdemir ÖC, Sevim S, Duygu E, Tu?ral A et al. Intra-observer and inter-observer reliability of leg circumference measurement among six observers: a single blinded randomized trial. J Med Life, 2017; 10(3): 176-181.
- Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang ZM, Ross R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. J Appl Physiol (1985), 2000; 89(1): 81-88.
- Tanimoto Y, Watanabe M, Kono R, Hirota C, Takasaki K et al. Aging changes in muscle mass of Japanese. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi, 2010; 47(1): 52-57 (in japanese).
- Deitrick JE, Whedon GD, Shorr E. Effects of immobilization upon various metabolic and physiologic functions of normal men. Am J Med. 1948; 4(1): 3-36.
- Zhu Y, Lin Q, Zhang Y, Deng H, Hu X et al. Mid-upper arm circumference as a simple tool for identifying central obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. PLoS One, 2020; 15(5): e0231308.