The Effects of Cognitive Training Program for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial
- aging, cognitive training, cognitive impairment
How to Cite
Objective: This pilot investigation evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive training program for older adults with cognitive impairment.
Methods: A sample of 23 individuals were randomly assigned to either a 24-session cognitive training program or a wait-list control group. Cognitive training sessions required participants to complete activities that targeted the following cognitive domains: attention, visual and verbal memory, visual spatial skills, processing speed, executive functioning, and language. A battery of cognitive tests were administered prior to and immediately after completion of the program. Depression, quality of life, agitated behavior, and daily functioning were also assessed.
Results: Small to large effect sizes on half of the cognitive outcome measures were observed following participation in the program. No positive effects were found with regard to non-cognitive outcomes.
Discussion: These results warrant further investigation into the benefits of this cognitive training program in larger randomized control trials.
Clinical Implications: The cognitive training program may provide activity staff in assisted living or memory care settings a highly structured, manualized, and user-friendly intervention for older adults experiencing cognitive decline.
2. Alzheimer’s Disease International. World Alzheimer’s Report 2015: The Global Impact of Dementia (Executive Summary); 2015.
3. Lanctôt KL, Rajaram RD, Herrmann N. Therapy for Alzheimer’s disease: How effective are current treatments? Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 2009;2(3): 163–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756285609102724
4. Bahar-Fuchs A, Clare L, Woods B. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitations for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (review). The Cochrane Library. 2013;2013(6): 1-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003260.pub2
5. Kanaan SF, McDowd JM, Colgrove Y, Burns JM, Gajewski B, Pohl PS. Feasibility and efficacy of intensive cognitive training in early-stage Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. 2014;29(2): 150-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317513506775
6. Lowenstein DA, Acevedo A, Czaja SJ, Duara R. Cognitive rehabilitation of mildly impaired Alzheimer disease patients on cholinesterase inhibitors. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2004;12(4): 395-402. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1097/00019442-200407000-00007
7. Mate-Kole CC, Fellows RP, Said PC, McDougal J, Catayong K, Dang V, Gianesini J. Use of computer assisted and interactive cognitive training programmes with moderate to severely demented individuals: A preliminary study. Aging & Mental Health. 2007;11(5): 485-495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860701368422
8. Sitzer DI, Twamley EW, Jeste DV. Cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2006;114(2): 75–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00789.x
9. Oltra-Cucarella J, Perez-Elvira RP, Espert R, McCormick AS. Are cognitive interventions effective in Alzheimer’s disease? A controlled meta-analysis of the effects of bias. Neuropsychology. 2016;30(5): 631-652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000283
10. Teng EL, Chui HC. The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1987;48(8): 314-318.
11. Hunter JE, Schmidt FL. Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings. Newbury Park: Sage; 1990.
12. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.
13. Blatter K, Cajochen C. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: Methodological constraints, protocols, theoretical underpinnings. Physiology & Behavior. 2007;90(2-3): 196-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.09.009
14. Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: Fourth edition WAIS-IV. New York: The Psychological Corporation; 2008.
15. Schretlen D. Brief Test of Attention. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 1997.
16. Benedict RHB, Schretlen D, Groninger L, Dobraski M, Shpritz B. Revision of the brief visuospatial memory test: Studies of normal performance, reliability, and validity. Psychological Assessment. 1996;8(2): 145-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//1040-35188.8.131.52
17. Brandt J, Benedict RHB. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources; 2001.
18. Tuokko H, Hadjistavropoulos Y, Miller JA, Beattie BL. The Clock Test: A sensitive measure to differentiate normal elderly form those with Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40(6): 579-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1992.tb02106.x
19. Reitan RM, Davidson L. Clinical Neuropsychology: Current Status and Applications. Washington DC: VH Winston; 1974.
20. Benton AL, Hamsher K. Multilingual Aphasia Examination. Iowa City, Iowa: AJA Associates; 1989.
21. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2001;16(9): 606-613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x
22. Ettema TP, Droes RM, de Lange J, Mellenberg GJ, Ribbe MW. QUALIDEM: Development and evaluation of a dementia specific quality of life instrument. Scalability, reliability, and internal structure. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;22(6): 549-556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1713
23. Cohen-Mansfield J, Marx MS, Rosenthal AS. A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences. 1989;44(3): 77-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/44.3.m77
24. Saliba D. Buchanan J. Development and validation of a revised nursing home assessment tool: MDS 3.0; 2008.