Whey Protein Supplementation as a Strategy to Preserve Muscle Mass and Increase Protein Synthesis in the Elderly: a Review of Literature
- Sarcopenia, Muscle mass, Whey protein, Protein synthesis.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
INTRODUCTION: Aging often coincides with loss of muscle mass, strength and function, known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome closely linked to physical frailty, has a substantial impact on the quality of life. Inadequate dietary intake, especially protein intake, has been associated with decreased lean body mass. Dietary protein affects muscle mass by the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis after absorption of amino acids into muscle cells AIMS: Verify the effectiveness of whey protein supplementation in increasing protein synthesis and muscle mass in elderly. METHODS: This is a systematic review conduced in the pubmed database, which sought clinical trials published between 2012 and 2016, with the combination of descriptors: Whey protein, muscle mass, protein synthesis, sarcopenia. RESULTS: We found 30 articles and after exclusion of non-relevant issues and duplicate articles were included 11 articles in this study. Of the selected material, 3 studies did not find positive effects with supplementation, this null response could have occurred because of dose and/or timing of supplementation, 1 study found the same effect with leucine supplementation and 7 studies found positive effects with whey protein supplementation for the protein synthesis and the increase of lean body mass in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we can conclude that supplementation of whey protein shows positive results for increased protein synthesis and muscle mass in the elderly. However, the results differ between the sexes, quantity and timing of consumption, which after the need of new studies for the best understanding of the subject. It seems that the elderly respond best to higher amounts of supplement and the periods more distant from the practice of resistive exercise. In addition, after reviewing the articles it appears that men present better results than women do. The results give us another option to maintain the independence and quality of the elderly.
2. ARNARSON, A. et al. Effects of whey proteins on the results of resistance training in elderly people: double blind, randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013), 1–6.
3. BAER D., et al. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 141: 1489–1494, 2011.
4. BAUER, J. M., et al. Effects of a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Nutritional supplement on Measures of Sarcopenia in Older Adults, the PROVIDE Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. JAMDA 16 (2015) 740e747.
5. BEASLEY J.M, SHIKANY J.M, THOMSON C.A. The role of dietary protein intake in the prevention of sarcopenia of aging. Nutr Clin Pract. 2013; 28:684–90.
6. BECHSHØFT, R., L., et al. Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass: a clinical and ethnological trial on the role of protein supplementation and training load (CALM Intervention Study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials (2016) 17:397. DOI 10.1186/s13063-016-1512-0
7. BUKHARI S. S. et al. Intake of low-dose leucine-rich essential amino acids stimulates muscle anabolism equivalently to bolus whey protein in older women at rest and after exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308: E1056–E1065, 2015. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00481.201
8. BURD N.A., et al. Greater stimulation of myofibrillar protein synthesis with ingestion of whey protein isolate v. micellar casein at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Br. J. Nutr. 108: 958–62, 2012.
9. CHALE A., CLOUTIER G.J., HAU C., PHILLIPS E.M., DALLAL G.E., FIELDING R.A. 2013. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in lean mass, muscle strength, and physical function in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 68:682–690.
10. COKER et al. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals. Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:105.
11. CRUZ-JENTOFT A.J, et al. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 2010;39:412–23.
12. CRUZ-JENTOFT A.J, MORLEY J.E, EBRARY I. Sarcopenia. Hoboken, N.J;Chichester, West Sussex;: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
13. DEVRIES MC, et al. Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men. Physiol Rep. 2015;3(8):e12493.
14. HOUSTON D.K., et al. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:150–5.
15. JANSSEN I, HEYMSFIELD SB, WANG ZM, ROSS R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89: 81–8.
16. KANDA A, et al. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content. Br J Nutr 110: 981–987, 2013.
17. KIRN, D. R et al. The Vitality, Independence, and Vigor in the Elderly 2 Study (VIVE2): Design and methods. Contemporary Clinical Trials 43 (2015) 164–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2015.06.001.
18. KRAMER et al. Impact of the Macronutrient Composition of a Nutritional Supplement on Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Older Men: A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, November 2015, 100(11):4124–4132 doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-2352.
19. KIRSTEN E. Bell, et al. A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7): e0181387. Published online 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387
20. KUMAR V, et al. Age-related differences in the dose-response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men. J. Physiol. 587: 211–7, 2009.
21. KUKULJAN S., et al. Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-months randomized controlled trial, J. Appl. Physiol. 107 (6) (2009) 1864–1873.
22. LUIKING Y.C., DEUTZ N.E., MEMELINK R.G., VERLAAN S., WOLFE R.R. 2014. Postprandial muscle protein synthesis is higher after a high whey protein, leucine-enriched supplement than after a dairy-like product in healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 13:1475–2891.
23. MAKANAE Y, FUJITA S. Role of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Sarcopenia. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 2015;61 S125.
24. MOLNÁR, A, et al. Special nutrition intervention is required for muscle protective efficacy of physical exercise in elderly people at highest risk of sarcopenia. Physiology International, Volume 103 (3), pp. 368–376 (2016) DOI: 10.1556/2060.103.2016.3.12
25. MOORE D.R., et al. Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015; 70:57–62.
26. NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH), WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Global health and aging. NIH Publication 11-7737. Washington, DC: NIH; October 2011. http://www.who.int/ageing/ publications/global_health.pdf. Accessed 27 Jul 2016.
27. PADDON-JONES D., RASMUSSEN B.B. Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009;12:86–90.
28. PAL S, ELLIS V. The chronic effects of whey proteins on blood pressure, vascular function, and inflammatory markers in overweight individuals. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010, 18:1354–1359.
29. TANG J, MOORE D. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol 107: 987–992, 2009.
30. VERREIJEN A.M., et al. A high whey protein, leucine, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(2):279–86.
31. WIRUNSAWANYA, K. ET AL. Whey Protein Supplementation Improves Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1344591
32. WOLFE R.R1, MILLER S.L, MILLER K.B. Optimal protein intake in the elderly. Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;27(5):675-84. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.008. DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2008.06.008
33. ZHU et al. Two-Year Whey Protein Supplementation Did Not Enhance Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Well-Nourished Healthy Older Postmenopausal Women. J Nutr 2015;145:2520–6. doi:10.3945/jn.115.218297.