International Journal of Aging Research https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR <p>International Journal of Aging Research (ISSN:2637-3742, DOI:10.28933/IJOAR)&nbsp;is a peer reviewed open access journal publishing research articles, review articles, editorials in aging research.</p> en-US IJOAR@escipub.org (International Journal of Aging Research) IJOAR@escipub.org (International Journal of Aging Research) Wed, 23 Oct 2019 11:51:59 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 INFLUENCE OF TAE BO EXERCISE ON BONE MARKERS AND FRAX SCORE https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/65 <p>In recent times, osteoporosis has taken epidemic proportions. It is a disorder that in time of industrialization and application of new technologies is starting to impact even the younger population. The use of modern devices in everyday life is resulting in a reduce level of human physical activity, consequently leading to inactive way of life and increase in number of people suffering from osteoporosis. Going beyond its educational character, this dissertation also has an aim to point out potential positive aspects of Tae Bo exercises on people with osteoporosis and potential positive effect on bone mass, lowering of FRAX score and better quality of life.<br>The study included 92 patients with osteoporosis diagnosis, who at the beginning and at the end of the study carried out laboratory blood, urine, densitometry tests and filled out questionnaires of the ten-year risk of fracture (FRAX) and Quality Questionnaire QUALEFFO 31. The study was prospective, randomized controlled study conducted on a group of women between 55 and 65 years age during the period from 01.07.2018. to 01.07.2019. Research has shown that programs Tae Bo exercise can positively impact the greater bone mass and quality of life of people with osteoporosis. Considering the social and economic magnitude and the breath of osteoporosis as a global and widespread problem, the main contribution of this study was to find new ways in mitigating the effects.</p> Slavica Janković1, Mirsad Muftić2, Amra Macić Džanković3, Majda Zonić Imamović4 Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/65 Wed, 15 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Use and preventive value of metformin in geriatric women with polycystic ovary syndrome https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/64 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To establish the effects of long-term use and preventive value of metformin in geriatric women with PCOS.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A search of published review articles was carried out in sites such as NCBI, ScienceDirect, Elsevier, Springer, Wolters Kluwer, among others, using the key words: “polycystic ovary syndrome”, “PCOS”, “Polycystic ovary syndrome and metformin”, “effects of metformin and PCOS“,” insulin resistance and metformin “and” long-term sequelae of polycystic ovarian syndrome“.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We retrospectively analyzed data specific to the randomized clinical trial of Pedersen et al. 2017, to determine the impact that treatment had for twelve months with metformin in three specific variables: weight, total cholesterol and HDL. The study was conducted in 40 Caucasian women from 18 to 39 years of age, with a fixed dose of metformin (2 g / day for 12 months), who met the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS in their genetic variant MATE1 with SOP7.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It was confirmed that the establishment of twelve-month treatment with metformin in the randomized clinical trial of Pedersen et al. 2017 had a significant effect on the three specific variables: weight, total cholesterol and HDL.</p> Jazmín Abril Pérez Aguilar, Alejandra Niño Herrera, Guillermo Muñoz Zurita Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/64 Wed, 18 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Myocardial Revascularization Surgery https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/62 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is characterized as the cellular death of the muscle that involves the heart, causing ischemia, which is associated with the clinical presentation, presenting electrocardiographic compatibility and / or electrocardiographic changes typical of the reduction or interruption of blood flow to the myocardium. Myocardial revascularization (MRI) is a surgical procedure that connects mammary arteries, radial arteries, or saphenous veins. These “bridges” allow the blood to return to the coronary arteries preserving them, in any part of their follow-up.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives</strong>: To describe the casuistry of the patient with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), developing for a post-surgical picture of chronic renal failure (CRI), including therapeutic management, specific care, criticism and referential confrontations.&nbsp;<strong>Methodology</strong>: This is a descriptive and casuistic study. The study was based on a review of recent and recent publications regarding the proposed theme, electronic search of articles and journals in the following databases: in the portal of CAPES and BIREME, LILACS, SCIELO, MEDLINE, conducting authors’ confrontation and exposition of a case carrying out the specific considerations. The data collection instrument consists of data collection and has as study period from May 2016 to September 2016.&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: Description and analysis of the clinical picture of the patient JJFG, male, 77 years old, hospitalized in a hospital of the private network , where he was hospitalized in this hospital for more than a hundred days. After the therapeutic interventions the patient presented decay in his clinical picture. With several associated complications that culminated in the death of the patient. Conclusion: The infection table and the old age were determining factors for the clinical decline of this patient.</p> Limacedo Firmino da Silva1, Sonia Silva dos Santos1, Isabel Cristina Pinheiro da Fonseca1, Georgia Cybelle dos Santos Silva1, Veronica Emile Santos de Araujo2, Cristie Aline Santos de Araujo3 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/62 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Chronic disease profile, health utilization and self-reported financial situation of older people in rural South Africa https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/61 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Chronic diseases are more prevalent among older people. These illnesses require seeking continuous medical services which oftentimes have spill-over effects on the financial situation of individuals and households. Objective: To describe the chronic disease profile, health utilization and self-reported financial situation of older people in a rural population.&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong>: Cross-sectional data from South Africa Wellbeing and Older People Study (WOPS)-wave 2 was utilized for this study. The survey included 519 respondents and was carried out between April 2013 and August 2013. Descriptive statistics was used to report respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, chronic disease profile, health utilization patterns, hospitalizations and access to medical and non-medical financial aid. Chi square test was conducted to examine the factors associated with chronic diseases and self-reported financial situation at 5% level of confidence.&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: The mean age of respondents was 62 years. Of the respondents, 259 (50%) had hypertension and 122 (24%) had arthritis, twenty-two (4%) had stroke, 43 (8%) had diabetes, 25 (5%) hade asthma, 10 (2%) had heart disease and 6 (1%) had cancer. Following the experience of a health problem, 119 (46.67%) adopted self-medication and 36 (14.12%) consulted traditional healer. Four hundred and fifty-four (97.63%) respondents received no financial aid for buying drugs and paid out-of-pocket. Also, 452 (97.41%) had no access to financial aid to pay for hospital bills. Risk factors like tobacco use (χ2 =6.77, p=0.009) and alcohol consumption (χ2 = 8.90, p= 0.003) were also associated with hypertension. Also, being hospitalized in the last 1 year (χ2 = 8.15, p=0.017) was associated with whether households’ financial condition got better, remained the same or got worse. Having chronic disease (χ2 = 7.68, p= 0.022) was similarly significantly associated with self-reported financial situation.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions</strong>: The burden of chronic disease was high among older persons in this study. The study provided evidence that suggests that unearned income such as government grants and transfers as well financial supports from individuals’ families and acquaintances can provide some form of insurance against worsening financial condition among older people.</p> Folashayo Adeniji Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/61 Wed, 13 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Better satisfaction with life is associated with normal immune profile (CD4/CD8 ratio) – and dependent on the successful aging status – in older Brazilian individuals https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/60 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The immune system is an important determinant of longevity and has also contributed to the way individuals feel as they reach older ages. The inverted CD4/CD8 ratio is a parameter of the immune risk phenotype, and its prevalence increases with age. Association between immunological function, cognition and mood has been supported by studies with clinical and aging populations.&nbsp;<strong>Objective</strong>: We explored the relationship between the CD4/CD8 ratio and life satisfaction in a small sample of elderly people from Southern Brazil with good general health.&nbsp;<strong>Method</strong>: The sample consisted of 44 elderly individuals, who participated in an aging study in Southern Brazil (the PALA Study), and accepted to continue in the investigation collecting additional blood sample for the CD4/CD8 analysis. From this sample, 52% (N = 23) presented successful aging according to Rowe and Kahn’s criteria. No participant was HIV positive or presented any autoimmune diseases. A questionnaire was applied for sociodemographic and clinical data, lifestyle, and occupational activity. Cognitive function, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms were evaluated with specific instruments. Life satisfaction was evaluated with the Life Satisfaction Scale from Diener et al. (1985).&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: Forty-two individuals (95%) showed CD4/CD8 ratio&gt;1. CD4/CD8 ratio correlated significantly with life satisfaction (rho = -0.35) and with age (rho = -0.42) for the whole sample and among the successful aging sub-group only.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: This is an exploratory analysis with a small sample of elderly participants from a cohort started in 1996 in Southern Brazil (the PALA study). Their level of satisfaction with life was high, and correlated significantly, and inversely, with the CD4/CD8 ratio. It was also dependent on the successful aging status.</p> Juciclara Rinaldi1; Gabrielle do Canto1; Márcia Lorena Fagundes Chaves1,2 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/60 Wed, 23 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 THE PRACTICE OF LADDIC ACTIVITIES AS NURSING CARE FOR ELDERLY RESIDENTS IN A LONG-STAY INSTITUTION https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/59 <p>Introduction: Aging is increasing in the world population and this phase of life requires special care, but there are a number of elements that interfere in the elderly’s stay with their relatives. With this, these elderly people are inserted in institutions of long stay. And in many moments, far from their family members, the elderly people who live there present pictures of solitude. In this scenario, practices of play activities are an excellent strategy to promote change in the lifestyle of the institutionalized elderly, as they are related to the viability of moments of physical, mental and interpersonal well-being, significantly improving the quality of life of these subjects, in addition to strengthening autonomy and self-esteem. Objective: To report the experience of nursing students in nursing care and to practice playful activities with them. Methodology: This is an experience report that emerged from practical classes held at the Maria Julia Miranda Long-Term Institution, located in the Gruta neighborhood of Maceió, Alagoas, during September 2017, by nursing Faculty Estácio de Alagoas. Results: The care provided was understood based on the individual needs of each elderly woman, divided into two moments. In the first one, the nursing history was performed, which enabled us to identify diseases and risks of injuries. the construction of the care plan. The second moment was composed of playful moments where the old women sang, danced, told their stories, besides solving puzzles, hunting words and painting booklets. Studies show that these activities can contribute in a promising way to an effective work with institutionalized elders, play, simply for the pleasure of play, without commitment or formal rules, gives the elderly a new look about their moment, awakening spontaneity and creativity, improving their quality of life. life. It was also noticed a greater interaction between the elderly residents and their caregivers, from the intensification of the moments of dance and group singing. Conclusion: It was verified that health care of the elderly requires a comprehensive, holistic, continuous care, where the singularities are observed. We believe that the practice of play activities significantly favors learning, social interaction and autonomy, as well as fostering the maintenance of cognitive and functional status, improving the quality of life of the institutionalized elderly. We also emphasize that the leisure activities are low cost and can be incorporated into the daily schedules of long-stay institutions maintaining the feelings of pleasure and joy in these women. It was a very rewarding and very constructive experience for the training of professionals committed to the profile of social aging, seeing in old age ethical values of respect for life.</p> Itamara Barbosa Souza1*; Everaldo de Lima Gomes Junior2; Hulda Alves de Araújo Tenório3; Luciana da Silva Viana4; Raíssa Fernanda Evangelista Pires dos Santos5. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/59 Tue, 01 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 COGNITIVE PROFILE IN ELDERLY WITH MEMORY CHANGE COMPLAINTS https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/58 <p>Introduction: Population aging has increased over the years and directly affecting the health system. Latin America is considered to be a region where good information about dementia is lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive profile of the elderly with complaints of memory impairment. Method: The study was performed with patients who were being followed up at a public hospital in Recife – PE. Data were collected through the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Results and Discussion: 42 elderly people were evaluated in the first half of 2018, of which 13 were men and 29 were women with a mean age of 74.12 years. The majority, 74.36%, did not present scores compatible with GDS depression and MMSE was normal in 69.05% of the elderly; 66.67% presented alterations in the design of the clock and the majority presented alterations in the evocations of immediate and late words and also in the recognition of words. The CDR scores for 34.15% were compatible with mild dementia and moderate dementia classified 24.39% by CDR. Conclusions: Measures to diagnose the cognitive profile in the elderly are fundamental for the elderly to have a good quality of life and qualified treatment from health professionals.</p> João Carlos Alchieri1, Leopoldo Nelson Fernandes Barbosa2, Mônica Cristina Batista de Melo3, Maria Athina Kotzias-Bandeira4* Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/58 Wed, 25 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of the Attitudes of Nigerian Civil Servants towards Ageing https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/57 <p>The human population is continuously ageing and previous studies suggest that one’s attitude towards ageing predicts ageing outcome. While several factors have been shown to influence attitude towards ageing, the current study investigated the influence of self-esteem and gender on attitude towards ageing. The study adopted a cross sectional design and a total of two hundred and five (205) civil servants were randomly selected from state Civil Service Secretariats and Local Government headquarters in Enugu, Anambra and Ebonyi states respectively. Self-report measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a Self-Developed Attitude towards Ageing Scale were used for data collection. A Two-Way Analysis of Variance was used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that our first proposition that self-esteem as a psychological mechanism will significantly predict attitude towards ageing was not supported meaning that self-esteem whether high or low does not matter in how individuals respond to ageing consciousness. Whereas, the second proposition that gender will greatly influence attitude towards ageing was confirmed. In other word, the result further confirmed that female show more positive attitude about ageing than the male. The findings are discussed.</p> Grace M. Nwasogwa1, Kelechi T. Ugwu2 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/57 Mon, 16 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Benefits of Digital Gameplay for Older Adults: Does Game Type Make a Difference? https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/55 <p>Digital games can help older adults to entertain themselves, socialize with others, engage their cognitive functions, and enhance emotional states. This study surveyed 463 older Canadian adults to identify the digital games they had played and investigate whether playing them was associated with perceived socioemotional and cognitive benefits. The most widely reported socioemotional benefits were developing self-confidence, dealing with loneliness, and connecting with family. The most widely reported cognitive benefits were focusing, memory improvement, improved reaction speed, and problem solving. In the socioemotional category, connecting with current friends and connecting with family were both associated with strategy games, while connecting with current friends was also associated with sport games. In the cognitive category, both problem solving and speed in reacting/responding were associated with arcade games. Results show that playing digital games has the potential to be an intervention tool to improve older adults’ wellbeing.</p> David Kaufman1, Mengxin Ma2, Louise Sauvé3, Lise Renaud4, Emmanuel Dupláa5 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/55 Sun, 01 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacists in Home/Hospice/Palliative Care Settings https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/54 <p>Medication-related problems are common among home care patients who take many medications and have complex medical histories and health problems. The goals of home health care services are to help individuals to improve function and live with greater independence; to promote the client’s optimal level of well-being; and to assist the patient to remain at home, avoiding hospitalization or admission to long-term care institutions. Home care is an arrangement of care given by gifted experts to patients in their homes under the heading of a doctor. Home medicinal services administrations incorporate nursing care; physical, word related, and discourse dialect treatment; and therapeutic social administrations. Doctors may allude patients for home social insurance administrations, or the administrations might be asked for by relatives or patients. The scope of home social insurance benefits a patient can get at home is boundless. Contingent upon the individual patient’s circumstance, care can extend from nursing care to specific therapeutic administrations, for example, research facility workups. Normal analyses among home social insurance patients incorporate circulatory infection, coronary illness, damage and harming, musculoskeletal and connective tissue sickness and respiratory malady.</p> Abdul Kader Mohiuddin Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/54 Sun, 01 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacists in Aged Care Facilities https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/2 <p>The expression “Home-based care” or basically home care might be characterized as a wide exhibit of various kinds of care gave in the home by a wide scope of gatherings. The continuum of various sorts of home-based care conveyed in the home shifts as far as various measurements, including sharpness, kind of care gave, and level of physician contribution. Home-based care incorporates both formal and casual individual care services, Medicare gifted home health, physician house calls, and even “emergency clinic at-home” services. Prescription related issues are essential among home care patients who take various drugs and have complex medical annals and medical issues. The destinations of home social protection organizations are to help individuals with improving limit and live with progressively noticeable opportunity; to propel the client’s optimal element of thriving; and to assist the patient with staying at home, keeping up a vital good way from hospitalization or admission to long haul care establishments. Home care is a game plan of care given by capable specialists to patients in their homes under the heading of a doctor. Home restorative services organizations join nursing care; physical, word related, and talk language treatment; and medical social organizations. Doctors may suggest patients for home therapeutic services organizations, or the organizations may be requested by relatives or patients. The extent of home human services benefits a patient can get at home is endless. Contingent upon the individual patient’s condition, care can reach out from nursing care to explicit medical organizations, for instance, research center workups. Essential investigations among home therapeutic services patients consolidate circulatory disease, coronary ailment, harm and hurting, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disease and respiratory disease.</p> Abdul Kader Mohiuddin Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Aging Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/2 Wed, 31 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Polypharmacy and Association to Pharmacotherapy Complexity in Older HIV-Positive Patients. The Sevihlla Study https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/46 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Increased life expectancy of older HIV-positive patients has been associated to a parallel increase in age-related comorbidities.<br><strong>Objectives</strong>: To ascertain the prevalence of polypharmacy and its association to pharmacotherapy complexity, as measured by the Medication Regimen Complexity Index, in older HIV-positive patients; to calculate the median value of pharmacotherapy complexity; to identify polypharmacy and multimorbidity patterns; and to address adherence to antiretroviral and concomitant drugs.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted in patients over 50 years of age receiving active antiretroviral drugs during 2014 at outpatient pharmacy services of a tertiary hospital in Spain. Data collected from the electronic medical record included demographic, clinical and comorbidity related endpoints.<br>The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with polypharmacy and major polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was defined as treatment with six or more drugs (including antiretroviral). Major polypharmacy (more than 11 drugs) was also considered.<br>Patients was categorized according to their polypharmacy pattern. Three patterns were applied based on age of participants: cardiovascular, depression-anxiety, and chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) disease patterns. A patient was classified into a pattern when at least three drugs of the treatment were in the same pattern.<br>Antiretroviral treatment adherence was measured using the SMAQ questionnaire and hospital dispensing records. Adherence to concomitant medication was measured using the Morisky-Green questionnaire and electronic pharmacy dispensing records.<br>Pharmacotherapy complexity index, as assessed by MRCI, was also considered. Patients were classified as low MRCI (less than 14 points) or high MRCI (more than 14 points).<br><strong>Results</strong>: The study sample consisted of 223 patients (86.5% men), with a median age of 53.0 years. More than 80.0% of the patients were viro-inmunological controlled. Prevalence of polypharmacy was 56.1%. The median value of pharmacotherapy complexity was 11.0. The main contribution to this value was from the concomitant medication.<br>The polypharmacy pattern mainly calculated was cardiovascular (60.0%) and the multimorbidity pattern was cardiometabolic (73.8%).<br>Presence of polypharmacy was associated to greater pharmacotherapy complexity (p&lt;0,001). Adequate adherence to the antiretroviral and to concomitant medication was found in 83.6% and 37.9% of patients respectively.<br><strong>Conclusions</strong>: More than a half of the older HIV-positive patients received six or more different drugs with a significant pharmacotherapy complexity showing adequate adherence to antiretroviral but not to concomitant drugs. Cardiovascular conditions were most common in terms of prescriptions and comorbidities.</p> 1Ramón Morillo-Verdugo. PharmD, 1Mª de las Aguas Robustillo-Cortés*. PharmD., 2Laila Abdel-Kader Martín. PharmD., 3María Álvarez de Sotomayor Paz. PhD., 4Fernando Lozano de León Naranjo. MD, 5Carmen Victoria Almeida-González. MS Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/46 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Depression and suicidal ideation in institutionalized elderly in Recife https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/48 <p>This study aimed to analyze the disorders of depression and suicidal ideation in a population of institutionalized elderly in the city of Recife – PE. To measure the phenomena under study two standardized scales were adopted, the BECK SCALE FOR Suicide Ideation (BSI) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS / GDS). The collected data were entered into a database, and statistical procedures performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0 for Windows. After analysis of the data was possible to show that with the EDG, 48% of the interviewed elderly population is with some degree of depression. It was observed higher scores on the BSI scale for women. Among the elderly depression affects more the age less than 80 years, suicidal ideation was little evident in the population studied, being more related to female.</p> Evandro Valentim da Silva; Carla Andrea de Moura; Carolina Silva de Aleluia; José Marcio Nogueira da Silva; Fálba Bernadete Ramos dos Anjos; Eliane Helena Alvim de Sousa Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/48 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Alzheimer´s Disease and Age-related Macular Degeneration could simultaneously be treated or prevented with a single therapeutic intervention https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/49 <p>Alzheimer ´s diseases becomes the most common type of dementia in the world. There is more of 5.4 million AD patients in America, more than 6 million patients in China, and 35.6 million patients worldwide. AD and other dementias worldwide will increase to 67.5 million by 2030 and 115.4 million by 2050. In the aging population, two of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, AD and AMD, could simultaneously treated or prevented with single therapeutic intervention.</p> Arturo Solís Herrera, MD, PhD. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/49 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Neuro Engraftment and Neuroregenerative effects of Hydrogen Sulphide Donor, Intracerebral MSCs, Ginko Biloba and Kefir in Attenuating Neuropathological hallmarks of Lipopolysaccharide induced Alzheimer’s disease Rat models https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/50 <p>Background: Memory disorders have been characterized by being a devastating long term incurable diseases with a huge social impact in addition to a diminished efficient available medical treatments. Deep Brain stimulation via using neuroprotective inducers for treatment of brain structure degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be considered as being a promising successful therapy due to its various targets and underlying mechanisms for improving brain dysfunction. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to suggest therapeutic protocol having the potentials for restoring normal neurons diverse population and modifying neuropathological deposited hallmarks including both positive and negative lesions. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into nine groups: (G1) control ;(G2) rats received LPS as a method of inducing nongenetically manipulated AD;(G3)AD rats received NaHS;(G4) AD rats received MSCs intracerebrally;(G5) AD rats received MSCs+NaHS;(G6)AD rats received kefir+GB;(G7)AD rats received MSCs+kefir+GB;(G8)AD rats received NaHS+kefir+GB; (G9) AD rats received MSCs+NaHS+kefir+GB. Results: AD induction resulted in down-regulation of CBS expression and GSH brain tissue level accompanied with overexpression in amyloid-β protein, MAPK, tau protein, ACAT expression and MDA brain tissue level in addition to elevated caspase-3 serum level. Conclusion: The implantation of amyloid reliving therapy that do have a wide clinical impact if initiated at benign plaques stage before irreversible brain damage occurs. The following effects have been observed following the administration of suggested medical protocol where a decrease in AD pathological deposited hallmarks has been observed with maintaining inflammatory brain factors by functioning as a potent neuroregenerative.</p> Mai M.Anwar1, Ola S.M.Ali2, Laila A. Rashed.3, Badawi A.M.1, Nadia A.Eltablawy1 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/50 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Incidence of Cognitive Decline and Association with Changes in Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health Indicators in Individuals aged 50 years and older: Prospective Cohort https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/51 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To identify the incidence of cognitive decline (CD) in an urban community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older in a 4-year follow-up period and its prospective association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and health conditions as well as with changes in these factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a prospective cohort with a representative sample of people aged 50 years and older (n = 206) from Cambé, PR, where baseline data collection occurred in the year 2011 and the follow-up occurred in 2015. The incidence of CD was the outcome of this study, and its evaluation occurred through the Mini-Mental State Examination.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The incidence of CD was 13.1% over the 4 years of follow-up, and adjusted Poisson regression models (sex, age and age range) showed that this condition was prospectively associated with depression (adjusted relative risk (RR) = 3, 50, 95% CI = 1.65-7.43). When analyzing the effect of sociodemographic factor changes on CD, it was verified that the risk of CD was 2.86 times higher among the group that stopped having a companion in the 4 years of follow-up when compared to the group that maintained a companion in that same period, independent of confounding factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The data suggest that the CD process begins before the age of 60 y and that aggravation is associated with potentially modifiable factors that can be approached by health services from the perspective of promotion, prevention and care.</p> Maria Cristina Umpierrez Vieira1, 2, Douglas Fernando Dias1, Maira Sayuri Sakay Bortoletto1, Ana Maria Rigo Silva1, Marcos Aparecido Sarria Cabrera*3 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/51 Thu, 18 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Primary Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease in Indonesia https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/3 <p>Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. An increase number in the proportion of elders is accompanied by an increase of degenerative diseases and disabilities, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prevalence of dementia in Indonesia is 1.2 million cases in 2015 and will keep increasing up to 3,980,000 in 2050. This study discusses data on the prevalence of dementia’s risk factors in Indonesia, calculates population-attributable risks (PAR) to identify the number of dementia cases that could be prevented, and determines which intervention strategies will have the most significant effect in reducing Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) cases. Prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors for AD such as low education, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and mental disorders are still high. Moreover, the prevalences keep increasing for the last five years. Low education has the highest estimated PAR, which could significantly lower new AD cases if it is being improved. Ten and thirty percent of risk factor reduction can decrease AD cases by 18,000 and 66,000 cases. In addition, reducing physical inactivity by 10% and 30% can reduce 19,000 and 55,000 cases of AD respectively; lowering 10% prevalence of midlife hypertension and diabetes can reduce 2400 and 1600 cases of AD. Decreasing 10% of all risk factors is estimated to reduce 22,000 of new AD cases. By reducing these modifiable risk factors, especially by improving access to education, the incidence of AD could be greatly reduced. This review is expected to give suggestion to the government in determining the priority scale of controlling risk factors for reducing the social and economic burden caused by AD.</p> Yuda Turana1, Jeslyn Tengkawan1, Ika Suswanti1, DY Suharya2, Woro Riyadina3, Julianti Pradono3 Copyright (c) 2019 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/3 Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Cognitive Training Program for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/41 <p><strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;This pilot investigation evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive training program for older adults with cognitive impairment.<br><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;A sample of 23 individuals were randomly assigned to either a 24-session cognitive training program or a wait-list control group. Cognitive training sessions required participants to complete activities that targeted the following cognitive domains: attention, visual and verbal memory, visual spatial skills, processing speed, executive functioning, and language. A battery of cognitive tests were administered prior to and immediately after completion of the program. Depression, quality of life, agitated behavior, and daily functioning were also assessed.<br><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Small to large effect sizes on half of the cognitive outcome measures were observed following participation in the program. No positive effects were found with regard to non-cognitive outcomes.<br><strong>Discussion:</strong>&nbsp;These results warrant further investigation into the benefits of this cognitive training program in larger randomized control trials.<br>Clinical Implications: The cognitive training program may provide activity staff in assisted living or memory care settings a highly structured, manualized, and user-friendly intervention for older adults experiencing cognitive decline.</p> Jeffrey A. Buchanan, Erica Johnson, Joseph Kennedy, Katherine Stypulkowski, and Nathan Jensen Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/41 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 An evaluation of a walking and socialization program in long-term care: Impact on injurious falls https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/42 <p>The effects of a walking program in long-term care (LTC) are affected by multiple comorbidities and the LTC milieu. We randomly assigned residents 60 years and older into three groups (walking, socializing and control). Interventions were delivered five days weekly up to 30 minutes daily. Measurements were performed at baseline, 8, 16, 24 and 32 weeks, and included falls, grip strength, Berg Balance Scale, Senior Fitness Test, and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form. Survival analysis with 168 participants for time to first injurious fall showed a significant (p=0.001) interaction between age and sex, with fall risk increasing with age in females, but lowest in the oldest age group in males. The hazard ratio for first injurious fall was more than doubled by the use of an antidepressant (HR=2.198, p=0.005), decreased by the score on the Berg Balance high fall risk rating (HR=0.471, p=0.010), but not affected by the activity-socialization intervention. The increased hazard of injurious falls related to antidepressants, but not depressive symptoms, suggests that the high prevalence of antidepressants in LTC needs re-evaluation. Further research efforts will need to control for alternate physical activities.</p> <p><em>This work was supported by the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation Health Research (SHRF) Team Grant.&nbsp;</em><em>Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01277809</em></p> Lilian U Thorpe MD, PhD1, Susan J. Whiting PhD2*, Vanina PM Dal Bello-Haas PhD3, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos PhD4. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/42 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Feedback Schedules on Speech Motor Learning in Older Adults https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/44 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The principles of motor learning (PML) emerged from studies of limb motor skills in healthy, young adults. The applicability of these principles to speech motor learning, and to older adults, is uncertain.&nbsp;<strong>Aims</strong>: The purpose of this study was to examine one PML, feedback frequency, and its effect on retention and generalization of a novel speech and comparable tracing task.&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong>: Sixty older adults completed a speech motor learning task requiring the production of a novel phrase at speaking rates 2 times and 3 times slower than habitual rate. Participants also completed a limb motor learning task requiring the tracing of a sine wave 2x and 3x slower than habitual rate. Participants were randomly assigned to receive feedback every trial, every 5th trial, or every 10th trial. Mean absolute error was measured to examine immediate generalization, delayed generalization, and 2-day retention.&nbsp;<strong>Findings</strong>: Results suggested that feedback frequency did not have an effect on the retention and generalization of the speech or manual task, supporting the small but growing literature highlighting the constraints of generalizing the PML to other modalities and populations.</p> <p><em><strong>Funding:&nbsp;</strong>This research was supported by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Grants T32 DC000033, P30DC04661, and the University of Washington Royalty Research Fund (A70442) awarded to Dr. Kristie Spencer. The authors gratefully acknowledge Sara Savaglio, Christopher Woollcott, and all participants for their contributions to this study. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and only represents their views.&nbsp;</em></p> Phil Weir-Mayta, Ph.D.1; Kristie A. Spencer, Ph.D.2; Steven M. Bierer, Ph.D.3; Ayoub Daliri, Ph.D.4; Peter Ondish, Ph.C.5; Ashley France, M.S.2; Erika Hutchison, M.S.2; Caitlin Sears, M.S.2 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/44 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrition Care for Residents with Dementia in Long-Term Care Homes: Umbrella Review of Care Aide and Registered Dietitian Services https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/43 <p>Recent attention has highlighted the distinct food and nutrition needs of residents with dementia living in long-term care (nursing homes). Nutrition care involves assessment of nutritional need, along with providing safe and appropriate food that fulfills nutritional requirements. Within long-term care, much of the direct care responsibilities lies with care aides who provide the day-to-day assistance including at mealtimes; however, it is the registered dietitian (RD) who provides specialized nutrition care. We sought to examine how roles and responsibilities of care aides and dietitians were described in long-term care settings. As many systematic reviews addressing nutrition care in dementia have appeared in the past two decades, we examined these using an Umbrella Review protocol. Ten papers were retrieved which examined nutrition services for dementia residents. These were diverse in nature. While all addressed some aspect of nutrition and the need for appropriate staffing, only three noted and discussed care aides and only three either noted or made recommendations for involvement of dietitians. Thus, the lack of attention to RDs and care aides represents a true gap that must be addressed in order for recommendations to enhance nutrition care for residents with dementia to be effective.</p> <p><em>Funding statement: This work was supported by scholarship awards to A.C. from Alzheimer Society of Canada Quality of Life Doctoral Fellowship, a Public Health and the Rural Agricultural Ecosystem (PHARE) graduate trainee fellowship, CIHR-STIHR, University of Saskatchewan.</em></p> Allison Cammer1, Debra Morgan2 and Susan J Whiting1 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/43 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Whey Protein Supplementation as a Strategy to Preserve Muscle Mass and Increase Protein Synthesis in the Elderly: a Review of Literature https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/45 <p><strong>INTRODUCTION</strong>: Aging often coincides with loss of muscle mass, strength and function, known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome closely linked to physical frailty, has a substantial impact on the quality of life. Inadequate dietary intake, especially protein intake, has been associated with decreased lean body mass. Dietary protein affects muscle mass by the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis after absorption of amino acids into muscle cells&nbsp;<strong>AIMS</strong>: Verify the effectiveness of whey protein supplementation in increasing protein synthesis and muscle mass in elderly.&nbsp;<strong>METHODS</strong>: This is a systematic review conduced in the pubmed database, which sought clinical trials published between 2012 and 2016, with the combination of descriptors: Whey protein, muscle mass, protein synthesis, sarcopenia.&nbsp;<strong>RESULTS</strong>: We found 30 articles and after exclusion of non-relevant issues and duplicate articles were included 11 articles in this study. Of the selected material, 3 studies did not find positive effects with supplementation, this null response could have occurred because of dose and/or timing of supplementation, 1 study found the same effect with leucine supplementation and 7 studies found positive effects with whey protein supplementation for the protein synthesis and the increase of lean body mass in the elderly.&nbsp;<strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: Therefore, we can conclude that supplementation of whey protein shows positive results for increased protein synthesis and muscle mass in the elderly. However, the results differ between the sexes, quantity and timing of consumption, which after the need of new studies for the best understanding of the subject. It seems that the elderly respond best to higher amounts of supplement and the periods more distant from the practice of resistive exercise. In addition, after reviewing the articles it appears that men present better results than women do. The results give us another option to maintain the independence and quality of the elderly.</p> Celine de Carvalho Furtado1; Império Lombardi Jr2 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/45 Thu, 18 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Mandatory training in aged care- issues for Australian organisations and workers https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/37 <p>There are significant issues related to the implementation of Mandatory Compliance Training in Not For Profit Aged Care provision in Australia. This paper provides an overview of those issues through an autoethnographic approach based on my 4 decades as an educator. It critiques the application of Mandatory Compliance Training using contemporary understandings of adult learning.</p> Graham Blaxell B.A. Dip. Ed. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/37 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 “Beyond shame and sorrow”: Abandoned elderly women in India speak out https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/38 <p>I heard the story of Lakshamma from a couple of my friends who met her at the bus stop in Bangalore, South India. ‘You know, she did not look comfortable when she approached us asking for money’, my friend told me. ‘She quickly added that she was not a beggar and she felt bad doing that.’ Lakshamma told my friends that she had no choice because of her current situation. They gave her some money and asked if they could do anything else for her. First, she seemed both startled and grateful at this question. Then she told them her story. “My name is Lakshamma. I am 62 years old. I live in Shivajinagar, one of the neighborhoods in Bangalore, with my son and daughter-in-law. My son is a sales manager in one of the city malls and works long hours six days a week. A couple of months ago, my daughter-in-law who does not work and stays at home, started making every excuse to not have me at home as much as possible. She used to ask me to go to the neighbors or to the shop to get something and when I got back I found the door of the house locked. After unsuccessfully calling to my daughter-in-law to open the door, I had to sit and wait until the door was unlocked if my daughter-in-law was inside or until my son came home in the evening. I did not complain to my son because he came home tired and sleepy most of the evenings and went to bed right after the quick supper. Pretty soon the daughter-in-law told me not to stay near the house during the day but to go somewhere else, so the neighbors do not start talking. She never gave me any money or any food besides meager meal in the morning and that’s how I ended up at this bus stop asking people for money to survive until I have to go home in the evening.”<br>After hearing this story, I had a lot of unanswered questions at the time about this elderly woman whom I never met. What were the societal triggers that made it possible for Lakshamma to end up in this situation? Did Lakshamma’s son know about his mother’s situation? Did he pretend not to know and sided with his wife? What were the reasons for Lakshamma to be subjected to this treatment? Where else could she turn for help instead of just trying to get some money from the total strangers at a bus stop? How was she treated by the rest of the society? Those were among the questions that I hoped to answer some day doing this research work. During my previous work in Bangalore, I encountered an alarming number of women, especially elderly women, who were finding themselves even in worse daily situations than Lakshamma. They had been abandoned by their family members due to the economic instability of the family, the breakdown of the extended family system, and other reasons. They are thrown out of their homes, subsist on handouts, are exploited, and often are victims of street violence.<br>Traditionally, old age and women in India have been identified with the image of the multigenerational family, with the expectation that adult children will care for their aging parents. The family has been the most important social institution for the care of the elderly and has been expected to serve the role of primary care-giver, the principal source of support and security in old age. In stereotypical images, older adults in India are supposed to be perceived as wise, spiritually focused, and economically and socially stable (Nandan, 2007). However, as I came to increasingly appreciate during the course of this work, the capacity of the family to care for the elderly, as well as the availability and quality of support services, is dependent on the economic and social circumstances of the family, the overall political-economic environment, and changing economic conditions resulting from globalization and urbanization. During the last two decades, the decreasing family size, immigration and other changes in society have started posing challenges for care in India. The elderly can no longer solely depend on family to take care of them. Old age homes are filling the gap to a certain extent. But as of now, it is not a popular and affordable choice for most. Traditionally, old age homes were meant for the poor and destitute and hence mostly managed by charitable organizations, but in recent years, paid facilities have also emerged to cater to the needs of middle and upper middle-class older persons, who can pay for care in old age (Dutta, 2017).<br>The abandonment of elderly people in India and other places is not a new phenomenon. However, Salerno (2012) asserts that abandonment is central to modern times. He argues that while forms of abandonment and reactions to it vary from society to society, it appears to have taken on enormous social and cultural importance in modern life and characterizes not only our superficial relationships, but also many of our most intimate ones. As people’s life experiences are structured by wider societal relations, it is important to set the issue of abandonment of elderly within the larger historical, social and politico-economic contexts. In examining the issue of abandoned elderly women in India, my research focuses on identifying the linkages between the individual families and the wider structures and processes of society. As class and caste positions constitute the key social contexts essential to understanding the lives of women in all stages of life, I also examine what significance class and caste of abandoned elderly women have in shaping, sustaining and changing these women’s lives and experiences.<br>In this article I wish to focus on the abandonment-related experiences lived and told by the elderly women abandoned by their family members in Bangalore, South India. These experiences present alternate realities of powerlessness of the beggared and displaced faced by abandoned elderly in the society. They contrast with the official versions focused on the power that elderly females gradually acquire within their families as they get older.</p> Olya Clark, PhD Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/38 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The mask we wear: Chronological age versus subjective ‘age inside’ https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/39 <p><strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong><em>Age inside</em>&nbsp;is a type of self-reported, subjective age, that is unconstrained by years lived or physical health.&nbsp; The goal of this study was to explore: 1. How age inside is described and whether there is a relationship between age inside and chronological age; 2. Whether gender, income adequacy and education level associated with age inside or age inside perception; 3. Whether the associated variables be used to predict age inside and age inside perception as the dependent variables, in separate regression models.<br><strong>Method:&nbsp;</strong>Using a cross-sectional design, the data was collected via an online or in person questionnaire.&nbsp; Recruitment was done through doctor’s offices and seniors centres, as well as word-of-mouth utilizing a non-probability, purposive, sampling method along with snowball sampling.<br><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Participants were 66 adults aged 65–90 years, (<em>m</em><sub>age&nbsp;</sub>= 73 years, SD = 6.5) all of whom reported at least one illness.&nbsp; The majority of participants identified an&nbsp;<em>age inside</em>&nbsp;of 20 to 40 years less than their chronological age (<em>m</em><sub>AI&nbsp;</sub>= 51 years, SD = 14.9). Gender (not sex) and self-reported health were associated with&nbsp;<em>age inside</em>.<br><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong><em>Age inside</em>&nbsp;may explain mid and later life purchases such as sailboats, and sports cars, new hobbies and new loves.&nbsp; With a youthful&nbsp;<em>age inside,</em>&nbsp;the older adult may be more interested in risk taking and radical changes than fitting into stereotypical elder roles and as such, may cause confusion and frustration for loved ones and health practitioners.&nbsp;<em>Age inside</em>&nbsp;has clinical value and could help explain some older adults’ lack of compliance with medical directives due to the attitude ‘they are for old people, I’m not old’. &nbsp;By acknowledging that the chronological age may not be reflective of the age of the person inside, policy makers and/or service providers might take a step back from programs for ‘seniors’ and create instead, programs that appeal to the young&nbsp;<em>inside</em>.</p> L. F. Carver M.A., PhD. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/39 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Risks factors for significant injury after geriatric falls https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/40 <p>Elderly falls are a healthcare epidemic. We aimed to identify risk factors of serious falls by linking data on functional status from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) and our institutional trauma registry. 124 of 5,091 local women enrolled in GLOW were evaluated by our trauma team for injuries related to a fall during the study period. Median injury severity score was 9. The most common injuries were intertrochanteric femur fracture (n = 25, 9.8%) and skin contusion/hematoma to face (n = 12, 4.7%). Injured women were older than the uninjured cohort (median 80 versus 68 years), more likely to have cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, and less likely to have high cholesterol. Prospectively collected Short Form 36 (SF-36) baseline activity status revealed greater limitation in all assessed activities in women evaluated for fall-related injuries in our trauma center. In multivariable analysis, age (per 10 year increase) and two or more self-reported falls in the baseline survey were the strongest predictors of falling (both HR 2.4, p &lt;0.0001 and p&lt;0.001 respectively), followed by history of osteoarthritis (HR 1.6, p= 0.01). Functional status was no longer associated with risk of fall when adjusting for these factors.<br>Functional status appears to be a surrogate marker for frailty. With the aging of the US population and long lifespan of American women, this finding has important implications for both fall prevention strategies and research intended to better understand why aging women fall as burdensome validated metrics may not be the best indicators of fall risk.</p> <p><em>The authors have no conflict of interests to declare. Funding statement: This work was partially supported by grants from NIH (8KL2TR000160-03), AHRQ (R01HS22694), and PCORI (ME-1310-07682) to HS.</em></p> Jon D. Dorfman MD1, Allison Wyman MS2, Gordon FitzGerald PhD2, Timothy A. Emhoff MD1, Fred A. Anderson PhD2, Heena P. Santry MD MS3 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/40 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Neuroprotective Effect of Flavonoids: A Systematic Review https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/36 <p>Neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease are underpinned by neuronal damage corollary to the cascade of events pitched in by neuron inflammatory processes. Increase in cases of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing population indicates the need for developing new strategies to prevent or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Flavonoids have been documented for various health promoting effects. They exert multiple neuroprotective actions within the brain, such as protection of neurons from neurotoxins, suppression of neuron-inflammation and thus improve memory, learning and cognitive function. Two processes appear to be the basis of these effects. Firstly, they promote neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity by inhibition of apopotosis triggered by neurotoxic species due to interaction with critical protein and lipid kinase signaling cascades. Secondly they induce beneficial effects on the vascular system leading to changes in cerebrovascular blood flow capable of causing angiogenesis, neurogenesis and neuronal morphology. Limiting neurodegeneration and prevention or reversal of age-dependent loss in cognitive performance is possible by consumption of flavonoids-rich food throughout life. Thus flavonoids are strong candidates of being an important precursor molecule in the development of new generation of brain enhancing drugs. The present review accentuates current information on neuroprotective effects of flavonoids.</p> Divya Singh1 and Sukanya Hembrom2 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/36 Mon, 04 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 To correlate levels of knee osteoarthrosis with alteration of balance and quality of life in the elderly https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/19 <p>Introduction: In aging there are several physiological and biochemical changes, being recurrent pathologies, such as osteoarthrosis (OA). Objective: This study aimed to correlate levels of knee osteoarthrosis with alteration of balance and quality of life in the elderly. Methodology: It is a study observational, cross-sectional descriptive study performed at a Clinical School. The socio-demographic questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (EVA), Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Time Up Go Test (TUGT), Scale Somewhat functional of Lequesne, SF-36 and WHOQOL-Bref. The data were analyzed Statistically, using software R version 3.2.4, with values of significance (p &lt;0.05). Results: The sample consisted of 19 elderly individuals, 88.88% female, with a mean age of 66.78 years. In VAS, the mean score was 5.11; already in Tinetti was 19. The mean in the BERG scale was 40.95 and the time during the TUG Test was 22.56s. In Lequesne we obtained as a result 12.53. The lowest score of SF-36 was in the Pain domain (46,17); already in WHOQOL-Bref, was Environment (12,53). Conclusion: It is concluded that the found findings give indications that OA knee is a condition that interferes with the quality of life, as well as in the compromising the balance.</p> Gomes, V. M. S. A. ¹, Silva, G. Â. B. ², Uchôa, E. P. B. L ³ Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/19 Sun, 04 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Relatıon Between Qualıtatıve And Qantıtatıve Parameters Of Freezıng And Walkıng In Idıopathıc Parkınson’s Dısease https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/15 <p>Purpose: Our study is planned for determining the relation of some qualitative and quantitative parameters of freezing phenomenon and walking in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD). Methods: 87 patients (37 -%42.5 female, 50-%57.5 male) in ErciyesUniversity Faculty of Medicine Neurology Department involved in this study. Patients were evaluated by demographic data, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hoehn- Yahr Scale, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), freezing, 6 meter walking time, step count, rotation and related to step parameters. Results: Hoehn- Yahr Scale for the involved patients between 1-3, 14 out of their was 1(%16.1) and 17 out of their was 3 (%19.5). Freezing phenomenon was determined in 34 (%39.1) of the patients. There were no statistically difference between freezing and non-freezing patients about age, gender, education, profession, marital status and MMSE (p&gt;0.05). Statistically difference were obsorved between freezing and non-freezing groups about UPDRS, rotation time 360 degrees from right, rotation time 360 degrees from left, balance defect at 360 degrees right rotation, 6m walking time, step count, hesitating gait, arrhythmic stepping, opening arms outside while walking (p&lt;0.05). Discussion: Our study showed freezing phenomenon effects some walking parameters for IPD. Effect of freezing phenomenon on postural instability and It’s effection balance should be investigated. Also exercise programmes in IPD with freezing phenomenon should focus on walking education.</p> Assistant Prof Feyzan CANKURTARAN1, Assistant Prof Murat GÜLTEKİN2, Prof Dr Ferhan SOYUER1, Prof Dr Meral MİRZA2, Assistant Prof Gözde ERTÜRK3 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/15 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Turning Performance and Factors Related to Turning in Mild And Moderate Phase Parkinson’s Disease Patients https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/16 <p>Background/aim: The purpose of study is to determine the turning performance and other factors related to turning in mild and moderate phase Parkinson’s disease patients (PD).<br>Methods: Ninety two patients were followed up for observation. After passing neurological examinations, the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn / Yahr Scale (H&amp;Y), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Tinetti test, Berg Balance test, 6 m walking test, step count, 360° turning duration, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were applied. All cases were evaluated according to the “on” period.<br>Results: Forty one females and 51 males participated in the study. The duration of time it took to turn right was 8.22 ± 6.26 seconds, and the time it took to turn from left was 8.51 ± 6.63 sec. There appeared to be no statistical difference in the turn times of patients either in terms of the socio-economic factors of gender, education level, or employment status. But, statistically significant relationships were found when it came to in both directions, age, duration of illness, UPDRS, FIM, Tinetti, the Berg Test, the walking test, and the number of steps taken.<br>Conclusion: Our results suggest that 360 degree turning performance in mild and moderate stage PD is strongly associated with patient’s age, disease duration and disease severity.</p> Ferhan Soyuer1 Prof Dr, Murat Gültekin2 MD, Ass Prof, Feyzan Cankurtaran1 Ass Prof Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/16 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Mental Pension and Its Influence Factors of Rural Empty-nest Old Men https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/17 <p>With the continuous development of urbanization and aging, the rate of empty-nest old man in rural areas in China continues to rise. Due to the “Healthy China” strategy proposed by the 19th CPC National Congress and the changing family structure in rural areas, the vulnerable elders in rural vulnerable population have been placed in a prominent place. It is urgent to solve mental pension for the elderly in the countryside. On the basis of comprehensively understanding the connotation of mental support, we analyzed the data from the 2012 Renmin University of China. The factors influencing the mental pension of rural empty-nest old men were divided into three categories and 19 types. We deeply summarized the impact of different factors on the mental pension of rural empty-nest old men.</p> He Xihui and He Yixuan Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/17 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 To evaluate the quality of life of family caregivers of patients with knee osteoarthritis https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/18 <p>Introduction: The demographic situation in Brazil has changed with the elderly, increasing the need for caregivers to help with their daily activities. The tasks assigned to the caregiver can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion. Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of family caregivers of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Method: This is an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted at a school clinic and at the hospital outpatient clinic in Recife. Caregivers of both sexes, aged between 18 and 70 years, were included, and those with cognitive deficits were excluded. Participants signed the informed consent form. Questionnaires were then applied: Socio-clinical, SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF. Results: Nine caregivers were evaluated, the majority female (66.7%), mean age 51.44 ± 9.88 years, 66.7% did not practice physical activity and BMI of 25.39 ± 5.79. Of these, 66.7% are children, with associated diseases and similar to high school. No SF-36 questionnaire, as well as no WHOQOL-BREF, a moderate to good quality of life. In the linear correlation of Pessoa, there was a positive association between WHOQOL-BREF and SF-36. Conclusion: it was verified that the caregivers presented moderate to very good quality of life, such as the good relationship between the couple.</p> Gomes, V. M. S. A. ¹, Araujo, A. E. L. ², Uchôa, E. P. B. L. ³ Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/18 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Life quality in hypertensive elderly people in Olinda – PE https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/20 <p>Introduction: Hypertension is among the first places in the problems of public health in worldwide. Being the most common chronic disease in the elderly. Objective: To identify the hypertensive elderly community so that we can verify the functional ability, mental health, general health, pain, vitality, social functioning, limitations due to emotional and physical aspects of that population. Methodology: The study was conducted in the Community Center and welfare of the Town of COHAB 7 ° RO, whose sample consisted of 53 elderly hypertensive patients, aged 60 years, of both genders. Later we used the SF-36. Result and Discussion: The final sample comprised 44 volunteers with mean age of 72.5 years. A comparison between scores in different domains of the SF-36 in individuals who engage in activities to entertain and physical activities, observing significantly higher in the SM domain, the group of individuals who practice physical activity (85.1 ± 16 , 0 vs 70.0 ± 18.6, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Given the results run in this study, to denote the deleterious effects of hypertension, thus demonstrating the damage that interfere with the general health of the elderly. Making clear the importance of applying a questionnaire to assess quality of life in this population.</p> Ribeiro, G.O1; Silva, K.C.L2; Souza, F.S3³; Melo, T.A4; Fernandes, M.G5; Lima, A.K.P6 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/20 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Deciphering the longevity of the mole-rats https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/21 <p>A theoretical model of a nonlinear network that outlines the general aspects of mole-rat resistance to age-related diseases, such as cancer and the action of ROS was elaborated. According to our conjecture, it was shown that the protection is established because hyaluronic acid of high molecular mass forms a non-linear network of interactions. That network leads to self-organization away from the thermodynamical equilibrium, which appears through a “first order” phase transition as a supercritical bifurcation of Andronov-Hopf type. Finally, it is shown how the rate of entropy production is a Lyapunov function of the dynamics of the process.</p> L. Triana1, G. Cocho2, R. Mansilla3 and J.M. Nieto-Villar4* Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/21 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of the “Kwido-Mementia” computerized cognitive stimulation programme in older adults https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/22 <p>Despite the importance of cognitive stimulation to counteract the cognitive decline associated with age, there is contradictory evidence about the benefits of cognitive training programs that are carried out through new technologies, and little evidence about those programs conducted at home. This research examines the effectiveness of a computerized cognitive stimulation program in adults 65 years old and over who are users of a home care service. The sample consisted of 43 participants (88% women) and an average age of 81.4 years. A quasi-experimental research design with a control group was carried out, where the experimental group completed a 15-session training (Kwido-Mementia). The results showed that the training program improves cognitive functions; both visuospatial memory capacity and perceptual reasoning skills. The computerized cognitive training proves to be an effective tool, not only to prevent deterioration, but also to improve the cognitive abilities of people 65 years old and over. The work contributes to clarify, in part, the existing controversy in the literature regarding the usefulness of cognitive training programs based on new technologies and provides positive evidence, contrary to what other studies indicate regarding the programs carried out at home.</p> 1Álvarez-Lombardía, I., 2Migueles, M., 2Aritzeta, A., 1Acedo-Gil, K. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/22 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its relation to cardiovascular risk among elderly diabetic female patients https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/23 <p>Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide and certain groups as elderly persons women and institutionalized persons are particularly prone to severe deficiency. Objective: To identify the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its relation to cardiovascular risk among elderly diabetic female patients. Method: A cross sectional study conducted from the first of October 2014 to the end of March, 2016, where 163 elderly diabetic females who attended Ain shams university hospital at that time were included. They underwent careful history taking, body mass index calculation, blood pressure measurement and Serum 25(OH) D measurement, assessment of insulin secretion including fasting serum C-peptide and CPI measurement in addition to assessment of glycemic control by fasting blood sugar estimation. The level of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) was measured. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level &lt;20 ng/mL ) and insufficiency (25OHD concentration of 20–29 ng/mL) among elderly Egyptian diabetic female patients are 71.2% and 28.2% resp. There is statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and low fasting C peptide level and c peptide index. The 3 independent predictor of the presence of vitamin D deficiency were types of diabetic medications, low C-peptide and CPI values and upon logistic regression analysis for these 3 variables, lower CP level was an independent predictor of the presence of vitamin D deficiency. Results showed a weak negative correlation between serum 25(OH)D, systolic BP, BMI and HOMA IR in studied subjects. Conclusion: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among elderly Egyptian diabetic female patients is 71.2%. There is statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and low fasting C peptide level and c peptide index.</p> Walaa W. Aly1, Hend M. Taha1, Khalid E. Elsorady1, Wessam E. Saad2, Ahmed K. Mortagy1 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/23 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Changing Roles of Care Team Members within New Models of Care Delivery in Residential Care Facilities: Implications for the Delivery of Quality of Care https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/25 <p>Providing quality of care (QoC) to older adults in residential care settings is an ongoing challenge given the increasingly complex needs of this population and the escalating economic constraints within which health authorities operate. While the implementation of the residential care delivery model in a Western Canadian health authority has contributed to some improvements in QoC, it has also highlighted key challenges that are both interpersonal and organizational in nature; specifically, gaps in leadership, teamwork, mentorship, and communication, as well as staffing mix, staffing consistency, resident complexity, and competing policy and program initiatives and directives. The implementation of a major change in care delivery impacts residents, families, and staff and may, in turn, impact their perceptions of change in QoC. When evaluating a model, therefore, it is important to examine both qualitative and quantitative outcomes: stories from those most affected in their everyday lives and trends in QoC indicator data.</p> Karen M. Kobayashi1*, Ruth Kampen2, Amy Cox3, Denise Cloutier4, Heather Cook5, Deanne Taylor6, Gina Gaspard7, Mushira Mohsin Khan8 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/25 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Emotional Intelligence in Older Adults: Psychometric Properties of Trait Meta Mood Scale https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/26 <p>Nowadays, ageing in a healthy way is one of the greatest challenges of our era. The management of emotions is a powerful predictor of psychological well-being and health during all periods of life. However, to date, such evidence cannot be extended accurately to the older adult population since young adults have been the primary target of valid and reliable measures. Therefore the aim of this article is to analyse the validity and reliability of the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS) in a sample of middle-aged and older adults, and its relation to personality traits and subjective well-being. Findings show that the TMMS represents a useful tool in examining social and psychological adjustment of older adults. The TMMS-22 will allow the analysis of emotional regulation development, explaining differences in psychosocial adaptation and perceived emotional competence. Finally, a TMMS for the older adult population is a complementary resource to the ability measures of EI and encourages increasing awareness of emotional abilities and self-evaluation in an individual.</p> Nerea Galdona1, Aitor Aritzeta2, Cristina Martínez-Taboada2, Erkuden Aldaz1, Elena Urdaneta3 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/26 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer Disease with saliva biomarker BACE1 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/31 <p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the slow decline of cognition and functional abilities over time. The diagnosis for probable and possible AD relies principally on clinical criteria. The confirmation of the disease is made post-mortem by identifying extracellular senile plaques and intraneuronal fibrillary tangles in the brains of subjects with clinically defined dementia. However, the field critically lacks validated AD specific peripheral biomarkers to support the diagnosis in living patients or for early detection of patients at risk before symptoms appear. BACE1 (Beta site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1) cleaves Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) at two beta sites and represents a key target enzyme in the monitoring and possible treatment of AD. In our preliminary study, we evaluated the usefulness of salivary BACE1 to determine risk to develop AD in clinically normal patients. A preliminary in house laboratory grading system for BACE1 content in saliva was established with high levels of salivary BACE1 present in older patients and putatively at risk to develop AD. BACE1 seems to be a useful biomarker to help diagnose AD and to monitor disease progression, and remarkably regression, when treated with stem cell secretome.</p> Dr SJ Kellner and Prof M Ferchichi Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/31 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Entropy production as a physical pacemaker of lifespan in mole-rats https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/32 <p>This work discusses the relationship of the biological aging between mole-rats and rats through a unified approach from the perspective of thermodynamics. Taking calorimetric data from some published studies of the metabolism on mole-rats and rats, it is calculated the entropy production rate. It is observed that the entropy production rate in rats decays with chronological age, and develops a kind of first order phase transition. However, the mole-rats, showed that entropy production rate did not change significantly with age and exhibits a slightly higher value as an average compared to the rats analyzed. This result can be interpreted in terms of a mole-rats exhibit a more robustness, i.e. greater plasticity than rats. Furthermore, it is shown that the entropy production rate could be consider as a physical marker of biological age and a predictor of Lifespan.</p> L. Triana1, G. Cocho2, R. Mansilla3, & J.M. Nieto-Villar4* Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/32 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-Aging Gene linked to Appetite Regulation Determines Longevity in Humans and Animals https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/14 <p>The process of aging is determined by various genetic and environmental factors. Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress that alters cellular chromatin structure, DNA methylation with histone modifications. These epigenetic alterations lead to nuclear changes associated with mitochondrial apoptosis that is a major defect in the global chronic disease epidemic (1). The variability in longevity between individuals in different communities implicate various nutritional and environmental factors involved in transcriptional dysregulation that lead to cell damage that accumulates with age and contributes to mitophagy, insulin resistance and programmed cell death. The absence or malfunction of a gene (2) necessary for transcriptional regulation of gene expression, DNA repair and telomere maintenance in neurons has become essential with relevance to neurodegeneration that determines aging and lifespan.</p> Ian James Martins Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/14 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Genetic and environmental risk Factors of Alzheimer’s disease https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/24 <p>Alzheimer is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease generally found in the form of dementia in old age population. Advanced age is still considered as most influencing risk factors for this disease. WHO reported that dementia is the seventh leading cause of death in 2018 and affecting about fifty million people worldwide. Aging led to impair protein metabolism in the Alzheimer’s disease. A number of molecular events has been implicated behind this disease. As AD is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and etiology is still unclear, familial AD accounts only 5% of the disease. Then it is important to know about some other hidden risk factors that may play crucial role in the onset of the disease. Thus, this paper focused on the role of genetics, different environmental, oxidative stress factors and its association with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> Jyoti Yadav and Prof. Anoop Kumar Verma Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/24 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Telemedicine and Dermatology in the elderly in France: inventory of experiments https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/27 <p>Telemedicine is now in vogue, allowing thanks to the computer and communication tools to be deployed in the field of health, such as Dermatology, areas in which it has shown interest. As the population is aging, Geriatrics is more and more concerned by this innovative practice and nursing homes are more and more concerned. We take a look at telemedicine projects in France deployed in the field of dermatology in the elderly.</p> A.A. Zulfiqar1,2, A. Hajjam3, S. Talha2,4, Geny B2, M. Hajjam5, J. Hajjam6, S. Ervé6, E. Andrès 2,7 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/27 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Geriatrics & e-Technology: a personalized follow-up of elderly residents in nursing homes to anticipate the decompensation of geriatric syndromes. Rationale for a first prospective study Ger-e-Tech https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/28 <p>The objective of the GER-e-TEC project is to provide recorded personalized medical monitoring of residents in nursing homes using an intelligent telemedicine platform. It will assist healthcare staff by automatically processing the information from sensors and questionnaires to provide early detection and escalate alerts to enable health professionals, operating in retirement homes, to optimize patient care.</p> A.A. Zulfiqar1,2, A. Hajjam3, B. Gény2, S. Talha2,4, M. Hajjam5, J. Hajjam6, S. Ervé6, E. Andrès 2,7 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/28 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Is Propanediol a safer molecule than some other glycols in personal care and anti-aging biocosmeceutical products? https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/33 <p>Propanediol (1,3-propanediol) is an ingredient increasingly used by the industry for electronic cigarettes, personal care creams and anti-aging serums among many other products. For some skin care purposes, it is used to enhance the transdermal absorption of other ingredients (e.g., the actives) enabling moisturizing effects and skin smoothness to be improved. Propanediol may be derived from corn although synthetic forms also exist. It is a chemical similar to other glycols such as propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol) but generally believed to be safer. This short communication reveals in fact that only limited scientific evidence of safety is available. Preliminary signs of toxicity have been found following administration of propanediol in humans although its dose-dependent toxicity and long-term side effects on health have not been significantly explored. Consequently, as of today, skin care and anti-aging products for elderly, a vulnerable population, should not automatically be considered as safe. Those comprising 1,3-propanediol should probably be used with caution until scientifically-proven safety data for the intended purposes are obtained by independent scientists.</p> Pierre A. Guertin Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/33 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Are self-consciousness and mindfulness altered by aging? https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/34 <p>It is well known that aging is the process of becoming older. It is also associated normally with a progressive loss of biological functions – both physical and mental –, underlied by naturally-occurring changes at the molecular level that may lead to the development of so-called aging-related health problems – e.g., Parkinson’s Disease, dementia, memory loss, cerebrovascular problems and Alzheimer’s Disease. Along this idea, a fundamental question remains – are self-consciousness and mindfulness also affected by these physiological or pathophysiological changes? This short article summarizes briefly some of the key sementic, conceptual, methodological and physiological issues that shall be addressed prior to tentatively providing answers to comparable questions.</p> Pierre A. Guertin Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/34 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Age-related circadian disturbances in melatonin causing changes in thymus hormones and glucocorticoids rhythmicity in healthy animals and humans https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/35 <p>Circadian rhythms of the organism functions cause its adaptation to changes in environmental lighting. The pineal gland is a key regulator of the circadian rhythms of the immune system. The thymus, its central organ, is the source of some hormones, in particular, the highly active thymic serum factor / thymulin. Therefore, the issues of age-related changes in the circadian intra-immune relationships with thymus involvement and the possibility of melatonin influence not only on the above links but also on the glucocorticoids hormones with adaptive effect require an in-depth analysis.<br>Discussed are the literature data and our own findings how age-related changes in the circadian rhythms of thymus endocrine and adrenal gland glucocorticoid functions are linked with the melatonin-forming function of the pineal gland in healthy animals of different species (mice, rats, rabbits) and humans. The similar manifestations of the above interactions in healthy animals and humans demonstrate the biological significance of the pineal gland for the supporting circadian rhythms of the thymus and adrenal gland functions in the adult organism. The correlation of age-related changes in circadian rhythmicity of pineal gland in healthy animals and human, on the one hand, with the thymus and adrenal glands, on the other hand, has been demonstrated. In addition, the decrease of age-related disorders in the thymulin and glucocorticoid blood levels under the influence of pineal gland factors (melatonin and peptides) was shown. Thus, (a) the thymus endocrine function does not completely disappear in the old organisms and it responds to the effects of melatonin and peptide factors of the pineal gland and (b) age-related pineal gland desynchronosis has pathogenic significance for the formation of circadian disturbances in the thymus hormones and glucocorticoids.</p> Labunets Irina F. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/35 Tue, 04 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Anthropometric Parameters for Height Estimation in Egyptian Elderly Males https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/56 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Aging as a natural physiological process is accompanied with nutritional and metabolic changes that is reflected by the anthropometric indices furthermore loss of muscular and fat masses rises. elderly individuals it is complex, and sometimes impossible, to measure standing height precisely because of standing straight difficulties arising from underlying mobility issues Anthropometric indices and measuring formulas are greatly trustworthy when compared with more sophisticated methodologies such as hydro densitometry, electronic bio impedance.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To assess which one of the three anthropometric measures (demi-span, ulna length and knee height) is the most accurate for height estimation in Egyptian elderly males, and to provide a nationally representative regression equation for stature prediction that could be applied to Egyptian elderly males.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A cross sectional research study was conducted to estimate height in community dwelling Egyptian ambulant elderly males. The study sample consisted of 226 community dwelling elderly males.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The model for using knee height to estimate standing height of Egyptian elderly males [Height = 57.345 + 2.131 (Knee height in cm)], was found to be statistically significant reflecting 63.3% of standing height changes. [Table (5)] Besides there was strong statistically significant positive correlation between measured standing heights and study predicted standing heights (P value &lt; 0.001). [Table (6)] Finally it was revealed and displayed that by using the study equation, there is no statistically significant difference between measured and predicted heights.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: In the current research study, knee height was found to be more accurate than demi-span and ulna length for estimating height of Egyptian elderly males.</p> Hala Samir Sweed1, Maram Maher Monier1, Nahla Fawzi Abu-ElEzz2, Ahmed A Abdelgaleel1 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/56 Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Alzheimer’s Disease and Overload of Informal Caregivers https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/13 <p>Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most common chronic diseases of aging and caring for an elderly with this pathology causes a great deal of overload in the family. Objective: To analyze the overload of informal caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Methodology: Cross-sectional study approved by the Research Ethics Committee with Human Subjects (CAAE: 0178.0.236.000-11) and carried out at the Brazilian Alzheimer’s Association, in the section Pernambuco with 33 caregivers. The instruments used were: semi-structured sociodemographic questionnaire (caregiver and senior citizen ages, gender, degree of dependence of the elderly and degree of kinship among the participants) and Zarit Burden Interview Scale. These caregivers were divided into 4 groups, according to the degree of caregiver overload: mild, moderate, moderate to severe and severe. The Spearman correlation was used, considering p≤0.05. Results: Caregivers presented a mean age of 57.9 ± 12.2 years, while the elderly had 79.0 ± 8.1 years. 90.9% of the informal caregivers and 66.7% of the elderly were female. Regarding the degree of dependency of the elderly, 54.5% were considered totally dependent and, in relation to the classification by kinship, 63.6% were children. The moderate overload achieved a higher percentage, 39.4%, along with the moderate to severe overload level, 36.4%. When analyzing the degrees of overload with the age of the caregiver and the elderly, there was a positive correlation in the degrees of moderate to severe overload (rho = 0.734, p = 0.007). Discussion: The literature points out the predominance of the female gender in the elderly care and has been analyzing the caregiver’s overload by relating it to numerous factors. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the majority of informal caregivers are the daughters of the elderly with Alzheimer’s Disease. And the overload of care is directly related to the increase in the ages of the caregiver and the person receiving the care.</p> Oliveira, R.C.S1, Lima Neto, J.S2, Hemmlepp, L.K.F.S3, Bezerra, M.A.B4, Eufrásio, J.C5, Fittipaldi, E.O.S6 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/13 Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Efficacy of Vestibular Rehabilitation in the Treatment of the Elderly With Vestibular Symptomatologies https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/12 <p>Introduction: Changes in structures and systems of the human body through the process of senescence are responsible for frequent complaints in the elderly population, among which are those of dizziness, vertigo and imbalance. The aging of the vestibular, visual, somatosensory, musculoskeletal and central nervous systems mainly affects the postural control, being this of fundamental importance for the autonomy of these individuals. Vestibular rehabilitation aims to improve the overall balance, quality of life and spatial orientation of patients with dizziness. Objective: To verify the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of elderly patients with symptoms of vestibular alterations. Methods: We conducted extensive research and selected articles published between 2012 and 2016, indexed in the databases SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS. The following keywords were selected in Portuguese: Speech Therapy, Elderly and Vestibular Rehabilitation. Results and discussion: Currently vestibular rehabilitation is increasingly being indicated in the treatment of vestibular dysfunction, as it is also being prescribed for individuals who present alterations related to balance and spatial orientation. The main peripheral vestibular disorders prevalent in the elderly are: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo; Menière’s syndrome; Vestibular neuritis and persistent perceptual postural dizziness (subjective chronic dizziness). The treatment of coexisting pathologies is also fundamentally important for the success of the therapy. Conclusion: Vestibular rehabilitation was shown to be an effective and viable alternative for vestibular symptomatology in the elderly. It is a satisfactory strategy to treat or minimize vestibular alterations, as well as improvement in anxiety, depression, static and dynamic balance and reduction of the quality of life and social interaction of this population. However, the practice of vestibular rehabilitation has not yet become routine in many speech-language rehabilitation services.</p> Souza Neta, H.H1; Veras, A.R.A.L2; Aguiar, I.P1; Franco e Santos, S.N.S1; Costa, S.M.S1; Silva, V.R1. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/12 Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Diabetic Elderly: Correlation Between Falls and Risk Factors https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/8 <p>Introduction: The fall event, when associated with Diabetes Mellitus in the elderly, is multifactorial, however, it can be triggered by the reduction of functional capacity, mainly of the lower limbs. Objective: To correlate the fall event and risk factors in diabetic elderly. Methodology: Cross-sectional and correlational study, approved by the Ethics Committee in Research with Human Subjects (CAAE: 0127.0.106.000-09) and composed of elderly diabetic patients accompanied by medical professionals in a nucleus of attention to the elderly of a Brazilian public university. The instruments used were: semi-structured questionnaire with clinical data (age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and number of falls), Timed Up &amp; Go test (TUG) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Statistical analysis used the Spearman correlation. Results: Diabetic elderly (70.37 ± 6.65 years) were matched according to gender and age (1: 1 ratio), two groups were selected for correlation analysis, one with 28 men and the other with 28 women. In the correlation between genders, of the variables age and BMI with number of falls, TUG and SPPB, only women presented correlations between age and number of falls (rho = 0.382, p = 0.045), TUG (rho = 0.529, p = 0.004 ) and SPPB (rho = -0.547, p = 0.003), as well as between BMI and TUG (rho = 0.532, p = 0.004). Discussion: These findings corroborate the current literature, demonstrating that the reduction of functional capacity during aging, when associated with the presence of chronic diseases, increases the risk of falls. Conclusion: As the age advances, the elderly diabetic women become more susceptible to falls than men, possibly due to reduced functional capacity of the lower limbs and gait speed. And overweight seems to influence the reduction of the pace of walking.</p> Oliveira, R.C.S1, Lima Neto, J.S2, Torres, A.L.N.P.G3, Queiroz, S.S4, Souza, J.F.S5, Fittipaldi, E.O.S6 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/8 Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative Supplementary Communication (ASC) as a Field for the Development of Communication in Elderly Afasics https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/7 <p>Introduction: Aphasia is a pathology that causes a compromise in speech and / or writing, caused by an acquired lesion on the left side of the brain. It can cause language confusion and can impair access to vocabulary, syntactic organization, coding, and decoding of messages. We can classify as a severe aphasic patient, the one who does not speak or write, but there is production of unintelligible sounds, in other words, doesn’t have an articulate speech. Supplementary and / or alternative communication (SAC) is a form of contribution to benefit the language of patients with impairment in verbal communication, in this case aphasic. It is composed of verbal and nonverbal signs that stimulate dialogue favoring the adequacy of language. Objective: To carry out a bibliographic survey about supplementary and alternative communication (SAC) in aphasic elderly. Methods: This study was carried out with publication inclusion criteria between 2014 and 2017, indexed in the SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The following keywords were selected in English: Aphasia; Supplementary and Alternative Communication; Speech therapy; Elderly; Language. Results and discussion: Most of the studies analyzed reported that CSA contributed to the more active interaction during communication and influenced the development of linguistic and social quality. Pictogram Ideogram Communication (PIC), Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), Bliss system and use of communicators and softwares are technological resources that can be used for aphasics in speech and language practice. Conclusion: The use of alternative supplementary communication allows a perspective of non-verbal language and its dimensions, being effective for the manifestations of aphasia, since it provides a better quality in communication becoming more effective mainly for the family environment and generating benefits before the development of various other skills.</p> Franco e Santos, S.N.S1; Paulo, A.M.F1; Veras, A.R.A.L2; Souza Neta, H.H1; Andrade, M.A.F1; Costa, S.M.S1 Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/7 Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Fonoaudiology and Nutrition: a Multidisciplinary Look on the Elderly Dysphagic https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/9 <p>Introduction: In view of the inversion of the growth of the age pyramid in Brazil, where the increase in the elderly population has been highlighting, studies on this growing population and its specifications, such as incoordination in the act of swallowing food or saliva, are relevant. Functional, anatomical and physiological alterations resulting from senescence and associated pathologies directly interfere in swallowing, causing a damage. The swallowing deficit can lead to dysphagia, leading to malnutrition and dehydration in the elderly, due to a low caloric intake, food intake and even death. Since these aspects are impaired, it is necessary nutritional care and speech-language interventions on difficulties encountered at meals. Objective: To carry out a literature review through selected scientific articles about the importance of speech and hearing intervention in the elderly dysphagic. Methods: We conducted extensive research and selected articles published between 2013 and 2016, indexed in the SciELO, PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS databases. The following keywords were selected in English: Dysphagia, Speech-Language Pathology, Elderly and Nutrition. Results: The elderly is prone to nutritional problems due to physiological and social factors, the occurrence of chronic disease, the use of various medications, feeding problems, chewing and swallowing, as well as changes in mobility with functional dependence. The swallowing impairment can result in dysphagia, since it is not alerted, the risk of aspiration is immense causing pneumonia and if untreated leading to death. The implantation of nutritional risk screening and risk of dysphagia specific for the elderly patient is extremely important aiming at the early diagnosis of nutritional status and deglutition so that there is adequate speech-language intervention. Conclusion: In this way, it is known the importance of the multiprofessional performance to result in the best quality of life for such population, giving nutritional support, as well as the speech-language rehabilitation in the elderly dysphagic, aiming at it holistically.</p> Souza Neta, H.H1; Paulo, A.M.F1; Veras, A.R.A.L2; Honorato, C.D.P3; Araújo, N.T.A1; Franco e Santos, S.N.S1. Copyright (c) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://escipub.org/index.php/IJOAR/article/view/9 Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000