Vol. 3 (2020): International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews

Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders- Systematic Review

Walker JM., Stones A.
North Central University


  • workplace bullying, first responders, law enforcement, mental health, depression, anxiety, suicide

How to Cite

Walker JM., Stones A. (2020). Impact of Workplace Bullying Amongst First Responders- Systematic Review. International Journal of Psychological Research and Reviews, 3(1), 24. https://doi.org/10.28933/ijprr-2020-01-1205


The phenomenon of workplace bullying is pervasive and exposure to bullying leads to long-term, systemic and individual negative impacts to targets of bullying and the organizations in which they work. Multiple studies confirm that workplace bullying is associated with psychological trauma and serious negative long-term outcomes for targets including mental health disorders and in extreme cases suicide. Emergency service organizations by design are hierarchical in nature, creating power structures that can lead to increased potential for bullying. The literature shows that first responders who work in emergency service organizations report rates of workplace bullying at upwards of 60% (six times the National average). The prevalence of workplace bullying amongst first responders, given their already high stress jobs, along with the long term negative impacts to a targets health, mental health and wellbeing are significant and constitute a serious crisis within the emergency services community.


  1. Archer, D. (1999). Exploring “bullying” culture in the para-military organisation. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2), 94–105. http://doi.org/10.1108/01437729910268687
  2. Baillien, E., Notelaers, G., De Witte, H., & Matthiesen, S. B. (2015). The relationship between the work unit’s conflict management styles and bullying at work: Moderation by conflict frequency. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 32(3), 401–419. http://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X10377929
  3. Bano, S., & Malik, S. (2013). Impact of Workplace Bullying on Organizational Outcome. Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, 7(3), 618–627. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=96167571&site=ehost-live
  4. Bartlett, J. E., & Bartlett, M. E. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Literature Review. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 69–84. http://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311410651
  5. Bartlett, J. E., & Bartlett, M. E. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Literature Review. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), 69–84. http://doi.org/10.1177/1523422311410651
  6. Beckley, A. (2014). Organisational justice: is the police service ready for it? Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 9(2), 176–190. http://doi.org/10.1080/18335330.2014.940820
  7. Blackstock, S., Harlos, K., Macleod, M. L. P., & Hardy, C. L. (2015). The impact of organisational factors on horizontal bullying and turnover intentions in the nursing workplace. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(8). http://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12260
  8. Branch, S., Ramsay, S., & Barker, M. (2013). Workplace bullying, mobbing and general harassment: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(3), 280–299. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2012.00339.x
  9. Brewer, G., & Whiteside, E. (2012). Workplace Bullying and Stress Within the Prison Service. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 4(2), 76–85. http://doi.org/10.1108/17596591211208283
  10. Brewer, P., & Venaik, S. (2011). Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(3), 436–445. http://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2010.62
  11. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development?: experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261773471_The_Ecology_of_Human_Development_Experiments_by_Nature_And_Design
  12. Brown, S. G., & Daus, C. S. (2015). The influence of police officers’ decision-making style and anger control on responses to work scenarios. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(3), 294–302. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2015.04.001
  13. Brunetto, Y., Xerri, M., Shacklock, K., Farr-Wharton, B., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2016). Management, bullying and the work outcomes of Australian paramilitary. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology. http://doi.org/10.1177/0004865816647429
  14. Campeau, H. (2015). “Police Culture” at Work: Making Sense of Police Oversight. British Journal of Criminology, 55(4), 669–687. http://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azu093
  15. Carter, M., Thompson, N., Crampton, P., Morrow, G., Burford, B., Gray, C., & Illing, J. (2013). Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: A questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting. BMJ Open, 3(6), e002628. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002628
  16. Charles, S. T., Piazza, J. R., Mogle, J., Sliwinski, M. J., & Almeida, D. M. (2013). The wear and tear of daily stressors on mental health. Psychological Science, 24(5), 733–41. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612462222
  17. Chiril?, T., & Constantin, T. (2013). Understanding Workplace Bullying Phenomenon through its Concepts: A Literature Review. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1175–1179. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.722
  18. Condon, B. B. (2015). Incivility as Bullying in Nursing Education. Nursing Science Quarterly, 28(1), 21–6. http://doi.org/10.1177/0894318414558617
  19. Conlon, E., & Zandvoort, H. (2011). Broadening Ethics Teaching in Engineering: Beyond the Individualistic Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics, 17(2), 217–232. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-010-9205-7
  20. Cooper, C. L., Hoel, H., & Faragher, B. (2004). Bullying is detrimental to health, but all bullying behaviours are not necessarily equally damaging. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 367–387. http://doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001723594
  21. Coyne, I., & Monks, C. P. (2010). Bullying in different contexts: where does workplace bullying fit in and how can we learn from other contexts? 7th International Conference on Workplace Bullying Harassment. Retrieved from http://gala.gre.ac.uk/4897/
  22. Demir, D., Rodwell, J., & Flower, R. (2013). Workplace bullying among allied health professionals: Prevalence, causes and consequences. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 51(4). http://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7941.12002
  23. Devonish, D. (2013a). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630–647. http://doi.org/10.1108/ER-01-2013-0004
  24. Devonish, D. (2013b). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors: The mediating role of psychological well-being. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630–647. http://doi.org/10.1108/ER-01-2013-0004
  25. Devonish, D. (2014). Job demands, health, and absenteeism: does bullying make things worse? Employee Relations, 36(2), 165–181. http://doi.org/10.1108/ER-01-2013-0011
  26. Dobry, Y., Braquehais, M. D. M. D., & Sher, L. (2013). Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 25(3), 295–299. http://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2013-0065
  27. Einarsen, S., Helge, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. (2003). Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice. Taylor & Francis.
  28. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23(1), 24–44. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678370902815673
  29. Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2014). Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(2), 131–142. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-014-0944-7
  30. Einarsen, S., & Nielsen, M. B. (2015). Workplace bullying as an antecedent of mental health problems: a five-year prospective and representative study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 88(2), 131–42. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-014-0944-7
  31. Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A., Rørvik, E., Lande, Å. B., & Nielsen, M. B. (2016). Climate for conflict management, exposure to workplace bullying and work engagement: a moderated mediation analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 5192(April), 1–22. http://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1164216
  32. Emdad, R., Alipour, A., Hagberg, J., & Jensen, I. B. (2013). The impact of bystanding to workplace bullying on symptoms of depression among women and men in industry in Sweden: An empirical and theoretical longitudinal study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 86(6), 709–716. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-012-0813-1
  33. Escartín, J., Rodríguez-Carballeira, A., Zapf, D., Porrúa, C., & Martín-Peña, J. (2009). Perceived severity of various bullying behaviours at work and the relevance of exposure to bullying. Work & Stress, 23(3), 191–205. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903289639
  34. Escartín, J., Zapf, D., Arrieta, C., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á. (2011). Workers’ perception of workplace bullying: A cross-cultural study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(2), 178–205. http://doi.org/10.1080/13594320903395652
  35. Etienne, E. (2014). Exploring workplace bullying in nursing. Workplace Health & Safety, 62(1), 6–11. http://doi.org/10.3928/21650799-20131220-02
  36. Farmer, D. (2011). Workplace Bullying: An increasing epidemic creating traumatic experiences for targets of workplace bullying. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(7), 196–203. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/828014/Workplace_Bullying_An_increasing_epidemic_creating_traumatic_experiences_for_targets_of_workplace_bullying
  37. Francioli, L., Høgh, A., Conway, P., Costa, G., Karasek, R., & Hansen, Å. M. (2016). Do Personal Dispositions Affect the Relationship Between Psychosocial Working Conditions and Workplace Bullying? Ethics & Behavior, 26(6), 451–469. http://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2015.1043367
  38. Frederick, D. (2014). Bullying, mentoring, and patient care. AORN Journal, 99(5), 587–593. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2013.10.023
  40. Giorgi, G., Perminiene, M., Montani, F., Fiz-Perez, J., Mucci, N., & Arcangeli, G. (2016). Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: Impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00060
  41. Glambek, M., Matthiesen, S. B., Hetland, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying as an antecedent to job insecurity and intention to leave: A 6-month prospective study. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(3), 255–268. http://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12035
  42. Glasø, L., Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Interpersonal Problems Among Perpetrators and Targets of Workplace Bullying. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6), 1316–1333. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2009.00483.x
  43. Gloor, J. L. (2014). Review of Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, 2nd ed. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(1), 145–148. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2014.0020
  44. Granstra, K. (2015). Nurse Against Nurse: Horizontal Bullying in the Nursing Profession. Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives, 60(4), 249–257.
  45. Härkönen, U. (2007). The Bronfenbrenner ecological systems theory of human development. Scientific Articles of V International Conference PERSON.COLOR.NATURE.MUSIC, 1–19.
  46. Hauge, L. J., Einarsen, S., Knardahl, S., Lau, B., Notelaers, G., & Skogstad, A. (2011). Leadership and role stressors as departmental level predictors of workplace bullying. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(4), 305–323. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025396
  47. Heather K. Spence Laschinger. (2014). Impact of Workplace Mistreatment on Patient Safety Risk and Nurse-Assessed Patient Outcomes. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 44(5), 284–290. http://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000068
  48. Hodgins, M., MacCurtain, S., & Mannix-McNamara, P. (2014). Workplace bullying and incivility: a systematic review of interventions. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 7(1). http://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-08-2013-0030
  49. Hodson, G., Hogg, S. M., & MacInnis, C. C. (2009). The role of “dark personalities” (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy), Big Five personality factors, and ideology in explaining prejudice. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 686–690. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.02.005
  50. Hoel, H., & Beale, D. (2006). Workplace Bullying, Psychological Perspectives and Industrial Relations: Towards a Contextualized and Interdisciplinary Approach. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(2), 239–262. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2006.00496.x
  51. Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. (2001). Origins of bullying (pp. 3–19). http://doi.org/10.1201/9780203302262.pt1
  52. Hogh, A., Hansen, Å. M., Mikkelsen, E. G., Persson, R., Hansen, A. M., Mikkelsen, E. G., & Persson, R. (2012). Exposure to negative acts at work, psychological stress reactions and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 73(1), 47–52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.04.004
  53. Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). A review of research on bullying and peer victimization in school: An ecological system analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(4), 311–322. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.03.003
  54. Houck, N. M., & Colbert, A. M. (2016). Patient Safety and Workplace Bullying: An Integrative Review. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ePub(ePub), ePub-ePub. http://doi.org/10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000209
  55. Hurley, J., Hutchinson, M., Bradbury, J., & Browne, G. (2016). Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 25(1), 12–18. http://doi.org/10.1111/inm.12190
  56. Hutchinson, M. (2013). Bullying as workgroup manipulation: A model for understanding patterns of victimization and contagion within the workgroup. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3). http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01390.x
  57. Hutchinson, M., & Hurley, J. (2013). Exploring leadership capability and emotional intelligence as moderators of workplace bullying. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 553–562. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01372.x
  58. Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2015). The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care. Nursing Inquiry, 22(1), 13–26. http://doi.org/10.1111/nin.12077
  59. Johnson, S. L. (2011). An ecological model of workplace bullying: a guide for intervention and research. Nursing Forum, 46(2), 55–63. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.00213.x
  60. Johnson, S. L., & Rea, R. E. (2009). Workplace Bullying. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(2), 84–90. http://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0b013e318195a5fc
  61. Johnston, M., Phanhtharath, P., & Jackson, B. S. (2009). The bullying aspect of workplace violence in nursing.(Healthy Workplace, part 2). Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 32(4), 287. http://doi.org/10.1097/CNQ.0b013e3181bad5ef
  62. Karatza, C., Zyga, S., Tziaferi, S., & Prezerakos, P. (2016). Workplace bullying and general health status among the nursing staff of Greek public hospitals. Annals of General Psychiatry, 15, 7. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-016-0097-z
  63. Kwan, S. S. M., Tuckey, M. R., & Dollard, M. F. (2016). The role of the psychosocial safety climate in coping with workplace bullying: A grounded theory and sequential tree analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 133–148. http://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2014.982102
  64. Leach, L. S., Poyser, C., & Butterworth, P. (2016). Workplace bullying and the association with suicidal ideation/thoughts and behaviour: a systematic review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 74(1), oemed-2016-103726. http://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2016-103726
  65. Lee, C. (2011). An ecological systems approach to bullying behaviors among middle school students in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(8), 1664–1693. http://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510370591
  66. Leigh, L., Robyn, R., Geldenhuys, M., & Gobind, J. (2014). The inferences of gender in workplace bullying: A conceptual analysis. Gender & Behaviour, 12(3), 6059–6069.
  67. Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165–184. http://doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414853
  68. Linton, D. K., & Power, J. L. (2013). The personality traits of workplace bullies are often shared by their victims: Is there a dark side to victims? Personality and Individual Differences, 54(6), 738–743. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.026
  69. Longo, J., & Hain, D. (2014). Bullying: a hidden threat to patient safety. Nephrology Nursing Journal?: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses’ Association, 41(2), 193–99; quiz 200. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24818452
  70. Lovell, B. L., & Lee, R. T. (2011). Impact of Workplace Bullying on Emotional and Physical Well-Being: A Longitudinal Collective Case Study. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 20(3), 344–357. http://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2011.554338
  71. Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Tracy, S. J., & Alberts, J. K. (2007). Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree and impact. Journal of Management Studies, 44(6), 837–862. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00715.x
  72. Lynch, J. (2002). Workplace Bullying: Implications for Police Organisations: A Critical Issues in Policing Paper. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.nyu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/9708862?accountid=12768%5Cnhttp://getit.library.nyu.edu/resolve?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book&genre=unknown&sid=ProQ:National+Criminal+Justice+Ref
  73. MacIntosh, J., Wuest, J., Gray, M. M., & Aldous, S. (2010). Effects of workplace bullying on how women work. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(7), 910–931. http://doi.org/10.1177/0193945910362226
  74. Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2004). Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 335–356. http://doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001723558
  75. McKay, R. B. (2013). Confronting workplace bullying: Agency and structure in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Administration & Society, 46(5), 548–572. http://doi.org/10.1177/0095399713509245
  76. McTernan, W. P., Dollard, M. F., & LaMontagne, A. D. (2013). Depression in the workplace: An economic cost analysis of depression-related productivity loss attributable to job strain and bullying. Work & Stress, 27(4), 321–338. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.846948
  77. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375. http://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112449476
  78. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375. http://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112449476
  79. Miller, H., & Rayner, C. (2012). The Form and Function of “Bullying” Behaviors in a Strong Occupational Culture: Bullying in a U.K. Police Service. Group & Organization Management, 37(3), 347–375. http://doi.org/10.1177/1059601112449476
  80. Namie, G. (2003). Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. Ivey Business Journal, 68(2), 1–6. http://doi.org/10.1107/S0108767307043930
  81. Nielsen, M. B. (2013). Bullying in work groups: The impact of leadership. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 127–136. http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12011
  82. Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Outcomes of exposure to workplace bullying: A meta-analytic review. Work & Stress, 26(4), 1–24. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.734709
  83. Nielsen, M. B., & Knardahl, S. (2015). Is workplace bullying related to the personality traits of victims? A two-year prospective study. Work & Stress, 29(2), 128–149. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2015.1032383
  84. Nielsen, M. B., Mageroy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen, 12–13(3), 1233–1238. http://doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.13.0880
  85. Nielsen, M. B., Magerøy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening?: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke, 134(12–13), 1233–8. http://doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.13.0880
  86. Nielsen, M. B., Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(4), 955–979. http://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X481256
  87. Nielsen, M. B., Nielsen, G. H., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2015). Workplace bullying and suicidal ideation: A 3-wave longitudinal Norwegian study. American Journal of Public Health, 105(11), e23–e28. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302855
  88. Nielsen, M. B., Tangen, T., Idsoe, T., Matthiesen, S. B., Magerøy, N., & Mager??y, N. (2015). Post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence of bullying at work and at school. A literature review and meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 21, 17–24. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2015.01.001
  89. O’Donnell, S. M., & MacIntosh, J. A. (2015). Gender and Workplace Bullying: Men’s Experiences of Surviving Bullying at Work. Qualitative Health Research, 26(3), 351–366. http://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314566321
  90. Okechukwu, C. A., Souza, K., Davis, K. D., & de Castro, A. B. (2014). Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: Contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. http://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22221
  91. Olive, K., & Cangemi, J. (2015). Workplace Bullies: Why they are successful and what can be done about it? Organization Development Journal, 33(2), 19–31. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.library.capella.edu/docview/1692916283
  92. Ovayolu, O., Ovayolu, N., & Karadag, G. (2014). Workplace Bullying in Nursing. Workplace Sealth & Safety, 62(9). http://doi.org/10.3928/21650799-20140804-04
  93. Owoyemi, O. A. (2011). Exploring Workplace Bullying in a Para-Military Organisation (PMO) in the UK: A Qualitative Study. International Business Research, 4(2), 116–125. http://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v4n2p116
  94. Parkins, I. S., Fishbein, H. D., & Ritchey, P. N. (2006). The influence of personality on workplace bullying and discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(10), 2554–2577. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00117.x
  95. Parzefall, M., & Salin, D. M. (2010). Perceptions of and reactions to workplace bullying?: A social exchange perspective. Human Relations, 63(3), 761–780. http://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709345043
  96. Podsiadly, A., & Gamian-Wilk, M. (2015). Personality traits as predictors or outcomes of being exposed to bullying in the workplace. Personality and Individual Differences. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.001
  97. Qureshi, M. I., Rasli, A. M., & Zaman, K. (2014). A New Trilogy to Understand the Relationship among Organizational Climate, Workplace Bullying and Employee Health. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 9(2), 133–146. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.aebj.2014.05.009
  98. Reknes, I., Pallesen, S., Magerøy, N., Moen, B. E., Bjorvatn, B., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Exposure to bullying behaviors as a predictor of mental health problems among Norwegian nurses: Results from the prospective SUSSH-survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(3), 479–487. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.06.017
  99. Robinson, S. L., Wang, W., & Kiewitz, C. (2014). Coworkers behaving badly: The Impact of coworker deviant behavior upon individual employees. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 123–143. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091225
  100. Rooyen, J. Van, & McCormack, D. (2013). Employee perceptions of workplace bullying and their implications. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 6(2), 92–103. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-05-2012-0013
  101. Salin, D. (2003). Workplace Bullying Among Business Professionals. Framework, 56(117), 1213–1232. http://doi.org/10.1177/00187267035610003
  102. Salin, D. (2015). Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: The role of the psychosocial and physical work environment. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(1), 69–77. http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12169
  103. Salin, D., & Hoel, H. (2013). Workplace bullying as a gendered phenomenon. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(3), 235–251. http://doi.org/10.1108/02683941311321187
  104. Samnani, A.-K. (2013). “Is this bullying?” Understanding target and witness reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology., 28(3), 290–305. http://doi.org/10.1108/02683941311321196
  105. Samnani, A.-K. K., & Singh, P. (2014). Performance-enhancing compensation practices and employee productivity: The role of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Review, 24(1), 5–16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2013.08.013
  106. Samnani, A. K., & Singh, P. (2012). 20 Years of workplace bullying research: A review of the antecedents and consequences of bullying in the workplace. Aggression and Violent Behavior. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.08.004
  107. Sansone, R. A., & Sansone, L. A. (2015). Workplace bullying: A tale of adverse consequences. Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 12(1–2), 32–37. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1676371574?accountid=14711%5Cnhttp://ply-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/openurl/44PLY/44PLY_services_page?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&sid=ProQ:ProQ:psycinfo&atitle=Workplace
  108. Saunders, P., Huynh, A., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2007). Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 30(4–5), 340–354. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2007.06.007
  109. Schafer, K., Stutter, R., & Gibbons, S. (2015). Characteristics of Individuals and Employment Among First Responders. Retrieved from https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/analytics-reports/CharacteristicsOfIndividualsAndEmploymentAmongFirstResponders.pdf
  110. Sheehan, M., & Griffiths, J. (2011). Understanding the context of workplace health management as it relates to workplace bullying. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 4(1), 5–12. http://doi.org/10.1108/17538351111118563
  111. Skarbek, A. J., Johnson, S., & Dawson, C. M. (2015). A Phenomenological Study of Nurse Manager Interventions Related to Workplace Bullying. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 45(10), 492–7. http://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000240
  112. Spector, P. E., Zhou, Z. E., & Che, X. X. (2014). Nurse exposure to physical and nonphysical violence, bullying, and sexual harassment: A quantitative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 51(1), 72–84. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.01.010
  113. Spence Laschinger, H. K., & Nosko, A. (2015). Exposure to workplace bullying and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomology: The role of protective psychological resources. Journal of Nursing Management, 23(2), 252–262. http://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12122
  114. Swearer, S. M., & Hymel, S. (2015). Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis–stress model. American Psychologist, 70(4), 344–353. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0038929
  115. Tehrani, N. (2012). Workplace bullying: Symptoms and solutions. In Workplace bullying: Symptoms and solutions (p. xvi, 302). http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203130117
  116. Thirlwall, A. (2015). Organisational sequestering of workplace bullying: Adding insult to injury. Journal of Management and Organization, 21(2), 145–158. http://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2014.72
  117. Trépanier, S.-G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2013). Workplace Bullying and Psychological Health at Work: The Mediating Role of Satisfaction of Needs for Autonomy, Competence and Relatedness. Work & Stress, 27(2), 123–140. http://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.782158
  118. Tuckey, M. R., & Neall, A. M. (2014). Workplace Bullying Erodes Job and Personal Resources: Between-and Within-Person Perspectives. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 413–424. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0037728
  119. Turner, J. S., & Leach, D. J. (2012). Behavioural Activation Therapy: Philosophy, Concepts, and Techniques. Behaviour Change. http://doi.org/10.1017/bec.2012.3
  120. Valentine, S., Fleischman, G., & Godkin, L. (2015). Rogues in the ranks of selling organizations: using corporate ethics to manage workplace bullying and job satisfaction. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 35(2), 143–163. http://doi.org/10.1080/08853134.2015.1010542
  121. Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., & Molendijk, M. L. (2015a). Workplace bullying and mental health: A meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0135225. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135225
  122. Verkuil, B., Atasayi, S., & Molendijk, M. L. (2015b). Workplace bullying and mental health: A meta-analysis on cross-sectional and longitudinal data. PLoS ONE, 10(8), e0135225. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135225
  123. Vickers, M. H. (2014). Towards Reducing the Harm: Workplace Bullying as Workplace Corruption-A Critical Review. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 26(2), 95–113. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-013-9231-0
  124. Walker, J. (2017). A quantitative study of the prevalence and impact of workplace bullying amongst first responders. Northcentral Univeresity. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/164e57fb1518c623b2092bf82e3f5e8d/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
  125. Ward, J., & Winstanley, D. (2006). Watching the watch: The UK Fire Service and its impact on sexual minorities in the workplace. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(2), 193–219. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00304.x
  126. Wright, W., & Khatri, N. (2015). Bullying among nursing staff. Health Care Management Review, 40(2), 139–147. http://doi.org/10.1097/HMR.0000000000000015
  127. Zabrodska, K., & Kveton, P. (2013). Prevalence and Forms of Workplace Bullying Among University Employees. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 25(2), 89–108. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-012-9210-x