Vol. 4 No. 1 (2021): International Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation
Articles

Observations of Performance and Body Composition Following 8-weeks of Progressive Resistance Training in Participants With Cerebral Palsy

Brendan Aylward1 & Jason L. Talanian2*
1Unified Health and Performance & AdaptX. Lancaster, MA 01523. 2Exercise and Sports Science Department, Fitchburg State University, Fitchburg, MA 01420.

Keywords

  • Cerebral palsy; exercise; Hypertrophy; Strength training

How to Cite

Brendan Aylward1 & Jason L. Talanian2*. (2021). Observations of Performance and Body Composition Following 8-weeks of Progressive Resistance Training in Participants With Cerebral Palsy. International Journal of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.28933/ijsmr-2021-04-2605

Abstract

Purpose: To observe the effects of progressive resistance training on performance and body composition in participants with cerebral palsy.

Methods: Four quadriplegic (3 male, 1 female) and two hemiplegic (2 female) participants (22 ± 5 yr, mean ± SD) completed moderate to high intensity resistance training 2-3 days a week for 8-weeks. Strength training programs were developed for each participant based on their physical ability. Measurements of exercise performance and body composition (InBody 270 & S10) were collected prior to and following training. Data from all participants was pooled, and samples with 5-6 subjects were analyzed using a paired t-test with significance set at p < 0.05.

Results: Measurements of muscular fitness improved, including plank performance (pre: 64 ± 40, post: 95 ± 61 s, n = 6), supine sled leg press 1RM (pre: 225 ± 69, post: 378 ± 124 lb, n = 6) and bench/sled press 1RM (pre: 92 ± 54, post: 115 ± 58 lb, n = 5). There was no change in peak sprint capacity (pre: 89 ± 32, post: 96 ± 29 W, n = 5) or peak aerobic capacity (pre: 303 ± 136, post: 370 ± 246 s, n = 4). Measurements of body weight (pre: 151 ± 40, post: 151 ± 42 lb, n = 6) and skeletal muscle mass (pre: 53 ± 8, post: 54 ± 9 lb, n = 6) were unchanged following training.

Conclusion: Preliminary data is encouraging that the unique and challenging strength training program employed with these participants can be utilized to gain meaningful improvements in muscular fitness. However, a larger sample size and longer training period may be necessary to significantly increase muscle mass.

References

  1. Bax M., Goldstein M., Rosenbaum P., Leviton A., Paneth N., Dan B., Jacobsson B., Damiano D. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, April 2005; 47(8): 571-576.
  2. Reddihough D.S., Collins K.J. The epidemio- logy and causes of cerebral palsy. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 2003; 49(1): 7-12.
  3. Keawutan P., Bell K.L., Oftedal S., Ware R.S., Stevenson R.D., Davies P.S.W., Boyd R.N. Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool-aged children with cereb- ral palsy across all functions. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, August 2017; 58(8): 852-857.
  4. Waltersson L., Rodby-Bousquet E. Physical activity in adolescents and youth with cerebral palsy. Biomed Research International, 2018; 2018: 1-4.
  5. Veschuren O., Ketelaar M., Takken T., Helders P.J.M., Gorter J.W. Exercise programs for children with cerebral palsy: A systemic review of the literature. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2007; 86(12): 1-14.
  6. Taylor N.F., Dodd K.J., Baker R.J., Wiloughby K., Thomason P., Graham H.K. Progressive resistance training and mobility-related function in young people with cerebral palsy: a rando- mized controlled study. Developmental Medi- cine and Child Neurology, 2013; 55(9): 806-812.
  7. Bania T.A., Dodd K.J., Baker R.J., Graham H.K., Taylor N.F. The effects of progressive resis- tance training on daily physical activity in young people with cerebral palsy: a randomized con- trolled trial. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2015; 38(7): 620-626.
  8. Unger M., Faure M., Frieg A. Strength training in adolescent learners with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilita- tion, 2006; 20(6): 469-477.
  9. Taylor N.F., Dodd K.J., Larkin H. Adults with cerebral palsy benefit from participating in a strength programme at a community gymnasi- um. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2004; 26(19): 1128-1134.
  10. Dodd K.J., Taylor N.F., Graham H.K. A randomized clinical trial of strength training in young people with cerebral palsy. Develop- mental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2003; 45(10): 652-657.
  11. Darrah J., Wessel J., Nearingburg P., O’Connor M. Evaluation of a community fitness program for adolescents with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 1999; 11(1): 18-23.
  12. McCubbin J.A., Shasby G.B. Effects of isokinetic exercise on adolescents with cerebral palsy. Physical Activity Quarterly, 1985; 2: 56-64.
  13. Andersson C., Grooten W., Hellstein M., Kaping K., Mattsson E. Adults with cerebral palsy: walk- ing ability after progressive strength training. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2003; 45(4): 220-228.
  14. Damiano D.L., Abel M.F. Functional outcomes of strength training in spastic cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilita- tion, 1998; 79(2): 119-125.
  15. Morton J.F. The effects of progressive resis- tance training for children with cerebral palsy. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2005; 19(3): 283-289.
  16. Wiley M.E., Damiano D.L. Lower-extremity strength profiles in spastic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1998; 40(2): 100-107.
  17. Ross S.A., Engsberg J.R. Relation between spasticity and strength in individuals with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2002; 44(3): 148-157.
  18. Rose J., McGill K.C. The motor unit in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1998; 40: 270-277.
  19. McNee A.E., Gough M., Morrissey M.C., Shortland A.P. Increases in muscle volume after plantarflexor strength training in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 2009; 51(6): 429-435.
  20. Williams S.A., Elliot C., Valentine J., Gubbay A., Shipman P., Reid S. Combining strength training and botulinum neurotoxin intervention in children with cerebral palsy: the impact on muscle morphology and strength. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2013; 35(7): 596-605.
  21. Verschuren O., Takken T., Ketelaar M., Gorter J.W., Helders P.J.M. Reliability and validity of data for two newly developed shuttle run tests in children with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 2006; 86(8): 1107-1117.
  22. Dodd K.J., Taylor N.F., Damiano D.L. A systemic review of the effectiveness of strength training programs for people with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilita- tion, 2002; 83(8): 1157-1164.
  23. Schoenfield B.J., Grgic J., Ogborn D., Krieger J.W. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs. high-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2017; 31(12): 3508-3523.
  24. Scholtes V.A., Becher J.G., Comuth A., Dekkers Scholtes V.A., Becher J.G., Comuth A., Dekkers H., Van Dijk L., Dallmeijer A.J. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise streng- th training on muscle strength and mobility in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized control- led trial. Developmental Medicine and Child Neu- rology, 2010; 52(6): 107-113.
  25. Reid S.L., Pitcher C.A., Williams S.A., Licari M.K., Valentine J.P., Shipman P.J., Elliot C.M. Does muscle size matter? The relationship between muscle size and strength in children with cerebral palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 2015; 37(7): 579-584.