UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN IDO-EKITI, NIGERIA: A FOUR-YEAR REVIEW
- Endoscopy, Findings, Gastrointestinal, Indications, Nigeria, Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy.
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Background: Upper gastrointestinal complaints are common, and the underlying diseases varies widely. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the gold standard investigation for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. It helps in the proper diagnosis and the appropriate management of the underlying lesions.
Aim: To determine the characteristics of the patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a rural community in south-western Nigeria.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients who had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between February 2016 and February 2020 (a period of 4 years). The Age, Gender, Indication and the Endoscopy findings were obtained from the Endoscopy Register. A total of 181 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies had been performed over the period. The data obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive statistics used included frequency tables, means and standard deviations.
Results: A total number of 181 Oesophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) were performed during the period under review, out of which 95 (52.5%) were males and 86 (47.5%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.1 to 1. The age range of the patients was 9 to 89 years with a mean(±SD) of 52.4(±1.69) and median of 52.0 years. The highest number of OGDs were performed on individuals within the age bracket of 50-59 years whom were mostly females.
Dyspepsia constituted the commonest indication for OGD (51.9%) followed by symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (haematemesis/melaena) 16.0%, unexplained persistent vomiting 6.6% and clinical suspicion of a gastric tumour 5.5%.
The commonest endoscopic abnormality detected from this study was Gastritis 28.2% followed by Gastric erosions 12.2%, Duodenal ulcers 8.8%, Gastric tumours 8.3% and Oesophagitis 7.2%. Normal endoscopy findings were found in 24.9% of the patients. Gastritis was also the commonest endoscopic finding (constituting 40.4%) in patients who had OGD done on account of dyspepsia followed by Duodenal ulcers (8.5%) and Gastric erosions (6.4%). Gastric erosions constituted the commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in this study (44.8%) followed by Duodenal ulcers (13.8%).
Conclusion: The commonest indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in this study was dyspepsia while the commonest endoscopic diagnosis was gastritis. Gastric erosion was most commonly seen in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. From this study, Acid-Peptic disorders were the commonest underlying gastrointestinal pathologies of patients’ symptomatology necessitating endoscopic evaluation. The findings from this study conducted in a rural community in Nigeria were similar to those conducted in urban communities in the country. Therefore, a national guideline on the endoscopic evaluation of upper gastrointestinal disorders can be universally applied irrespective of the location of practice in Nigeria.
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